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Sample Annotated Bibliography Paper on African American Women in the Military; World War II to 1980s

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Sample Annotated Bibliography Paper on African American Women in the Military; World War II to 1980s

INTRODUCTION

American women have taken part in defending their country in both warfare and times of peace. Nevertheless, their efforts have mainly gone greatly unacknowledged and unrecompensed. Whereas American women in the armed forces have an account of discrimination anchored in gender, African American women experienced racial bigotry as well. Once disallowed from joining the US military, African American women fought for their right. Black women have greatly contributed in all warfare engagements in the history of America. The African American women greatly endured physical discomfort as well as personal criticism and the majority of their contributions went ignored for a long time. They endangered their lives and offered their capabilities and strengths to defend the nation and uphold sovereignty (Southwell and Wadsworth 73-75). Women notably supported their spouses, fathers, and sons not just in physically engaging in the war itself but also in nursing and comforting the suffering. The need to include women in the US military and the progressive execution of racial desegregation in the armed forces were necessitated by the social inclinations of the 1950s.

In the course of the Second World War, 1941 to 1945, the participation of women in war endeavors in the US greatly increased, but their proportion in the armed forces remained low (Hall, Orzada, and Lopez‐Gydosh 232-235). In the course of the decade, the inclusion and participation of women, especially African American, slowed. The view of participation in the military as an undertaking of men, the lack of official strategy and guidelines promoting the inclusion of women, and the societal mindsets concerning the roles of women led to serious uncertainties and ambivalence about women in defense forces. Over and above such concerns, African American women encountered great racial and gender discrimination that hindered their success and achievement in the military. However, there have been numerous “breakthrough” moments since the 1950s; women have relentlessly pursued their desire to serve. This study will tackle three questions that include: How does race help us understand gender and the role of African American women in the military era? What were the issues that hindered effective participation of black women in the military? What roles did African American women assume and what obstructed their successful participation in the military?

THE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
  1. Primary Sources

Benedek, Therese. Soldiers and wives: During separation. New York: Ronald Press Company, 1946. Print.

The vital information presented in this publication entails the effects of World War II on black women in the US. The author dedicates a huge section of discussion to the psychological attitude of the women, both married and unmarried, in the course of the war period. The publication evidently demonstrates that the African-American women offered great contributions irrespective of the evils of gender and racial discrimination that overwhelmed them. The women had to endure physical challenges concerning criticism and the treatment of their contributions in an unappreciative and rude manner. The women risked their lives in an attempt to give their full capabilities and ensure peace. This publication is consistent with other sources in this study as it highlights the efforts and endurance of the black women in the military activities in the US. It evidently demonstrates the roles that black women assumed and the issues that obstructed their successful participation in the military. Lucy Terry, a former slave that became an author, stated that some women masked their identity to look like men and fought alongside them in the war. The engagement of women in military activities resulted in Charity Adams, the first black commander, guiding an African American female unit.     

Benedek, Therese. Women in the armed forces. New York: Ronald Press Company, 1946. Print.

The unique information in this article is that women had to endure the issue of their contributions in the war being ignored. Women were easily mobilized to operate even in tasks earlier considered masculine. The roles of the women in the course of the Second World War are of great concern, particularly as a psychological challenge, because it influenced transformations in their roles and personalities and most of the time they had to endure hardships. In the course of the warfare, thousands of black women sought to defend the millions of the service members and civilians in the United States. Their contributions in the war have been ignored for a very long time, beginning with the period that they went back to America after missions overseas. This article is consistent with other studies used as it demonstrates the contributions of black women in military and what they had to endure. The publication demonstrates the significance of the women’s contributions in a well-grounded manner; it discuses issues such as discrimination that hindered the participation of black women in the military. Apart from their gender, race, being African American, hampered the participation and recognition of women in the military era. Despite the challenges, the black women could even function as soldiers. They had to leave their homes to take part in the warfare where some of them participated in missions overseas. Upon their return to the United States, their challenges, their undertakings in the society, and their anticipations posed intense and pervasive struggle amid the sexes. Such struggle, particularly with respect to discrimination, is still being experienced today on psychological and economic concerns.   

  1. Secondary Sources

Buchanan, NiCole T., Isis H. Settles, and Krystle C. Woods. “Comparing sexual harassment subtypes among Black and White women by military rank: Double jeopardy, the jezebel, and the cult of true womanhood.”Psychology of Women Quarterly 32.4 (2008): 347-361.

The authors’ major thesis is that the harassment that African American and White women experienced in the military differed because of their social insights and race. The race and status of the black women increased their risk of being discriminated against and facing negative psychological effects when judged against their White counterparts. This article is consistent with other sources in the study as it draws upon the analysis of women in the military with respect to the hardships they experienced such as racial discrimination and sexual harassment. The article affirms that though some White women experienced sexual and gender harassment and crude treatment, the African American women faced greater sexual assault, coercion and ill-treatment.  African American women reported higher psychological suffering after encountering harassment, which was not the case with the White women. Even if the African American women experienced less distress at minor levels of harassment, as the evil treatment turned more frequent, their misery rose considerably and at major occurrences, all the black women were equally perturbed. The fundamental information presented in the article is that race and status acted as considerable determining factors of harassment in the women in military era. Nevertheless, this article is inconclusive and there is a need for further studies to evaluate more deeply the issue of harassment of women across ethnic and status aspects.             

Hall, Martha L., Belinda T. Orzada, and Dilia Lopez‐Gydosh. “American women’s wartime dress: Sociocultural ambiguity regarding women’s roles during World War II.” The Journal of American Culture 38.3 (2015): 232-242.

The Second World War, as well as the Great Depression underscores the history of America from the 1930s to 1940s. The unique details of this article lie in its revelation of the roles that hindered the effective engagement of women, particularly African American, which encompassed the traditional gender concerns typifying their responsibilities. The authors’ main thesis is that women were left to undertake domestic chores alone as their cultural perception were getting married, bearing children, and having their life rotate about domesticity, which hindered their engagement in the military efforts. This article is consistent with other sources in the study in that it demonstrates that regardless of the hindrances that women encountered, they fought for their rights to take part in military. In the course of the World War II, numerous media outlets campaigned for the inclusion of women in war endeavors. The media was insistent that it was the patriotic right of women to assist in the military endeavors, either through volunteer tasks or through engaging in the warfare. Nonetheless, despite their participation in the military, women were constantly reminded of their domestic nature.    

McGraw, Kate, Tracey Perez Koehlmoos, and Elspeth Cam Ritchie. “Women in combat: Framing the issues of health and health research for America’s servicewomen.” Military medicine 181.1S (2016): 7-11.

Women started to take active official roles in the US military in 1901 but their numbers increased in the course of the First and Second World War where their tasks were mostly nursing, secretarial and communication support. The main thesis of the authors is that regardless of women officially serving in the military, their needs have been weakly understood, which could have hindered their successful involvement. It is vital to comprehend the situation and settings regarding the medical needs of females to initiate an effective campaign with the purpose of accepting and incorporating women wholly into military roles once assumed to be tasks for males only. It is also crucial to seek the necessary endeavors to address the health concerns of women, leadership problems associated with the inclusion of females in the military, and other exceptional challenges linked to the roles of women in warfare. Although the participation of women remained at a very low level, the development of their undertakings in the military and their capabilities in ensuring success in the battleground to mention a few required the comprehension of gender-based medical risks, accessibility to care, and other needs that were addressed inadequately. The information in the article is similar to that of the other sources in the study as it calls for a review of the manner in which the military field supports women as they seek a change of their roles and take part in warfare. The distinctive details of the article lie in its discussion of the issues that hindered the effective engagement of women in military, which encompass their health concerns, psychological dissimilarities between genders, and inability to assume leadership positions.     

Southwell, Kenona H., and Shelley M. Wadsworth. “The many faces of military families: Unique features of the lives of female service members.” Military medicine 181.1S (2016): 70-79.

Family plays a crucial role in the participation of both male and female individuals in military-related activities. Although with several exemptions, nevertheless, most of the details that are known regarding the influence of military families are obtained from research about the families of male soldiers. The family settings of female service members vary from that of man service member-wife composition. The unique information presented by the authors is that servicewomen had a greater level of remarriage or divorce when judged against their male counterparts, which is an issue that barred their effective participation in the military. The major thesis of the article is that women had a high likelihood of being in nontraditional family settings as civilian spouses of women in the armed forces reported low marital fulfillment, little community support and dissatisfaction with the military lifestyle. The concerns of the spouses were evident that the family faced both benefits and difficulties of the women’s participation in military efforts.  The point of view of the authors is similar to that of the other sources used in that it presents the challenges in the families that hampered the active role of women in military. More research should be carried out to reveal how other diverse family structures such as those of single parents influenced the participation of women in warfare. Moreover, the article leaves unanswered questions about the extent to which same-sex families perceived the involvement of women in the military.      

CONCLUSION

American women have greatly participated in protecting their nation in both warfare and periods of peace. Though American women in the military have an account of discrimination founded on gender, black women have faced greater bias due to other matters such as race. The facts of the lecture on women in the military era show that African American women experienced more suffering than White women did. The commencement of nursing as a career at the end of the nineteenth century influenced the participation of women in military efforts as nurses thus enhancing their participation. The change of the roles and attitudes of women necessitated by the World War II and concerns of social isolation led to a greater involvement of women in military endeavors. Despite numerous challenges and hindrances that women experienced, there were many “breakthrough” instances since after the Second World War, women persistently pursued their rights and desire to serve.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

Benedek, Therese. Soldiers and wives: During separation. New York: Ronald Press Company, 1946. Print.

—. Women in the armed forces. New York: Ronald Press Company, 1946. Print.

Buchanan, NiCole T., Isis H. Settles, and Krystle C. Woods. “Comparing sexual harassment subtypes among Black and White women by military rank: Double jeopardy, the jezebel, and the cult of true womanhood.” Psychology of Women Quarterly 32.4 (2008): 347-361.

Hall, Martha L., Belinda T. Orzada, and Dilia Lopez‐Gydosh. “American women’s wartime dress: Sociocultural ambiguity regarding women’s roles during World War II.” The Journal of American Culture 38.3 (2015): 232-242.

McGraw, Kate, Tracey Perez Koehlmoos, and Elspeth Cam Ritchie. “Women in combat: Framing the issues of health and health research for America’s servicewomen.” Military medicine 181.1S (2016): 7-11.

Southwell, Kenona H., and Shelley M. Wadsworth. “The many faces of military families: Unique features of the lives of female service members.” Military medicine 181.1S (2016): 70-79.

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