Journalism may be defined as the collection of information, editing, writing and disseminating the factual information to the people(Folkerts 227). This done with the aim of enlightening the mass. One would not go into the details of journalism without considering it birth background history. Moreover, the history of journalism cannot be touched without considering the proper literal skills used to enhance the writing and aggregating the information to the people(Folkerts 229). That is the history of journalism goes hand in hand with the literature skills employed. As in much as we are taking about journalism history there has to be the evaluation of how race, gender and class have been in effect in the news media. The access of information in the news media has never been the same to either the race or class or gender across the globe. This often differs on how due to several aspects in different nations across the world.
History of Journalism and literal skills.
Journalism stated back in the early Rome. It is in Rome states where the senates and their service men develop the skill of writing information on papers then sends the information to the higher and lower authorities in government. In the present world, the hierarchical chain does not exist with only exception in the news room and the media houses. However, there is no restriction to who writes the news as compared to the Rome senates since they were the only custodian of information. In the olden days, the news was limited to the people who could read and write. In the same period, too, women were very fewin number who were in the media field. This was for the reason that it would be of benefit to the those who understand the information on the paper work. Therefore, it isvery much correct to say that in current world the written information only targets the educated in the society and generally men are educated than women. The information in the past were limited to the few literate among the majority and so is today. That is, in the present days the news media will write only to win the interest of the target groups while sieving off the rest.If truly history repeats itself, then the common people who can get information are the only few who can read and write, the wealthier who can be heard and the powerful who controls the economy and politics. Althoughan individual may argue that, a lot of information may be accessed by many today through the internet. However, this will still be a menace. This is because, not all people have the gadgets that access the internet. In addition to the lack of gadgets, there is inadequate infrastructures in many parts of the world(Gill 37). For instance, the inaccessibility of either electricity, the internet connectors and the satellite discs still hinder different people from getting the information in the internet. The people who are in the remote areas will definitely lose touch with the communication gadgets hence limiting the access of information. To support this argument, it is evident that close to 40 % percent of the people in both the developed world and developing world cannot access either the radio, internet and the news on media information (Folkerts 229). The mentioned percentage above cannot access information due either poverty, illiteracy, the deprivation by the employers or their superiors. In addition, to the information may be deprived based on the sexuality or gender one belongs. This continue to give challenge to the journalism sector.
From the history of journalism, it is very important now to counter check on different media features that often propagates the minds of the mass to have their perception to be right. The people perception is usually influenced by propaganda.According to Herman, propaganda in journalism is defined as the perceptions held by the people about the media fraternity(Herman 257). Propaganda features can either be from different races, gander and class. For instance, it is a long-term belief that, the most influential people in the society fund the news programs and media houses to have their way to convince people. The argument fordoing thisis because they know well the media is entrusted by the public to give truthful information. Nonetheless the propaganda of the leveled against the media can be counteracted by the news rooms by using the four propaganda models. These models assist in sieving out the information that is just and reliable for the public to believe. The models are one, the size, ownership and profit orientation, two the advertising license, three the sourcing mass media, the flak and enforcers and the final model is the anticommunism control.
Size, ownership and profit orientation is model that help the media house to have viable financial strengths to withstand funding from influential people. For this to happen there has to be transparency among the owners and to the shareholders of the media house in question (Chomsky 33). This act of viable financial strengths often lure large number of investors leading to high profits hence good public reputation and growth of the media house. In addition, there is the direct control of the media by the owners since they have both finance and the public trust. On the side of the licensing of the news rooms, there has to be subscription to programs by the media houses. This not only give the cash to the media houses but enables the competition among different news medias. Since the media which wins most public interest earns more adverts hence more cash to pay up for the license. This gives the media owners direct control over what to aired or advertised to the public. On the other hand, Sourcing of the mass media appear to be a greater challenge as it is surrounded by common wealthy people, the corporate members and governmental stakeholders(Chomsky 37).However, it is theduty of the media houses to merge the right information from the people on the ground. That isthe people who have the exact truths. The sourcing of information is often dominated by male gander as they can reach even the insecure places. Thirdly, use of flak enforcers often give the media power to demonstrate against anti human activities. From such demonstrationsaired by the media, gives confidence to the public hence earning the public trust. Finally, the campaign against terrorism attacks on the countries such as the US give more confidence and voice to the media therefore it would be of great value for the media to uphold the anticommunism as a control mechanism.
Gender values and principles in journalism
Principles in journalism refers, to key fundamental aspects that journalist focuson to ensure truthful and reliable dissemination of information to the public. In giving information about certain topic or idea, it is always advisable to be very objective by avoiding clouding of information. The objectivity of the news is reached when the sensitive issues of linking of general thoughts to gander is avoided. For example, the fallacy of relating women to use emotions to reach the public is backward reasoning(Gill 67).Instead of viewing emotion expression on the negative side on the women gender it could also be interpreted in more positive way. Another key principle is the news values. The news values are regarded as what make the news tangible. It consists of both the cultural values and concepts that ensure the growth and life standards. The news values impact on the news coverage. For instance, it can fuel conflicts and stereotyping among the women in the journalism sector. Therefore, the news value can hinder the collection of information both to the journalist and what the public receives(Gill 67).
The interest of the groups and relationship between gander, race and class is also outlined in the principles of journalism. In the journalism, it is often precise to give valuable information rather than opinionated information. This is because, the bias of information usually emerges as a result of following the opinions of majority (Van Dijk 67). Nevertheless, the opinionated information can be taken into account provided that there is just truth that can be proven or if it is fact finding by the professionals who have experience in a given field. This discourages news biasness and favoring of a given group opinion. The group opinion that should be considered should not have self-motive and self-interest. On another ground, the current mode of trend that women are always acting together and do represent whole population of women is wrong. A group of women who are unified in journalism should not be categorized with the notion of group acting. This is because the given group do not present the whole needs for women in the society. Moreover, there is no specific group that can champion all the thoughts of the rest of a given population (Gill 33). To put more emphasis, an individual opinion is always surrounded and built by both personal perception and the social interactions of life. Therefore there, will be no particular time that group a representation will fully cater for the whole of the society. In conclusions, the view and the of male chauvinism should be checked as it is the hindering information and gander balancing in most societies. For example, most of the women activist action are thought to be campaigns rallied against the males. In reality check, the societies dominated by men often carries the wealthy, the powerful and the elites while the women are segregated from such group(Van Dijk 67). These combinations see most news information to focus on the men with power and influencing while forgetting the struggling women in the society. In addition, the idea has led to undervaluing of the women ideas and valuing the male ideas. It would be important if the subjective principle is applied to the male dominated societies in the news rooms. Therefore, unless we reinforce and rebuke the importance of balanced gander parity, the journalism sector will forever remain behind and dominated by male owners and news anchors. Nevertheless, the act of discrediting and failure to appreciate the female gander will only lead to stunt growth of the society. This balance of power it should must be viewed that, women self-interested formed groups in the field of journalism is for the better good for the growth of the journalism field rather than representation of self-interested groups with the thoughts of all females.
Chomsky, Noam, and Edward Herman. “A propaganda model.” Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media. 2d ed. New York: Pantheon Books (2002): 1-35. Chomsky and the fellows try to elaborate how politics can shape the news and give the news its relevancy. This shows clearly how different topics have got different intake among people. The book explains that women in journalism usually are deprive the opportunity to collect news on the grounds as men are the most preferred for insecure places.
Croteau, David, and William Hoynes. Media/society: Industries, images, and audiences. Sage Publications, 2013. Croteau and William shows the real images of the numbers of women against numbers of women in different cultural industry including the journalism field. This publication shows the numbers of US citizens audiences and their preference on ether to radio or print media and TV shows.
Herman, Edward, and Noam Chomsky. “A propaganda model.” Media and Cultural Studies (2006): 257. This book expounds on the propaganda leveled on newsrooms. The authors extend to explain how if females who intends to own media houses should adjust using the propaganda models to fill the loop holes and earn public trust.
Van Dijk, Teun A. “Critical discourse studies: A sociocognitive approach.” Methods of critical discourse analysis 2.1 (2009): 62-86. Van Dijk and the collogue analyses how women are perceived in world of journalism. The book explains the social relations of female brain and how the female ganders is cognitively upright in making judgments.
Folkerts, Jean. “History of journalism education.” Journalism & Communication Monographs 16.4 (2014): 227-299. This journal written by Folkerts. It addresses on early history of journalism and how it was dominated by male gander while the women gander was set aside since they were less educated in number compared to men.