Technology Sample Paper on WAN Technologies Paper


WAN which is shortened from a wide area network is defined to be a geographically distributed private telecommunications type of system which helps in the interconnection of several local area networks (Edgeworth, 2017). Just as how LAN works but in the case of WAN is on a large scale. However, institutions such as the Government, and big Businesses together with schools use WAN to share and send data to customers, staff, buyers, and suppliers respectively which are in different geographical locations. Therefore, companies can use this mode of telecommunication to carry on with its day in day out transactions in an efficient manner irrespective of the site (Morgan, & Dennis, 2004).

The small networks such as LAN and Metro area networks (MAN) are always connected by this WAN type of system (Reid, 2007). Despite the fact that the internet is the widest area network segment, WAN is also a portion of the web (Edgeworth, 2017). However, the only difference between WAN and LAN is the scale and the technology used to make each of them. Moreover, within the wide area network, there are routers and switches which are used for interconnection. Accordingly, the full mesh and half mesh are the topologies that are used for connections within the switch (Morgan, & Dennis, 2004).

There are always multiple protocols within the WAN network which may include: point-to-point protocol, packet switching protocol, and circuit switching protocol (Morgan, & Dennis, 2004). To start with the point-to-point protocol is known to be a simple protocol that always has a unique link between the two nodes or two ends (Edgeworth, 2017). However, it’s considered the easiest to understand since point to point channel of communication of point-to-point topology always seems to be in permanent association with the two nodes. Point-to-point protocol in networking is always defined as the data link protocol that is used for the establishment of a straight connection between the two nodes. Furthermore, it can create an authentication of connection transmission compression together with encryption (Morgan, & Dennis, 2004).

Considering the data transmission technology within the point-to-point protocol, it’s always used for internet access connections (Morgan, & Dennis, 2004). However, the internet service providers usually use the PPP for the function of client dial-up access to the web due to the reason that without the data link protocol the IP packets can’t pass over a modern line of transmission (Reid, 2007). Comparing the ATM and the Ethernet, the point-to-point protocol is often used by the internet service providers and the establishment of the Digital Subscriber Line Internet service connection with the customers (Edgeworth, 2017). Moreover, in the areas where the Serial Line Internet has been superseded, the point-to-point protocol is always used for connection within the synchronous and asynchronous circuits. The most common example that is always referred to when talking of the point-to-point protocol is the child’s tin can telephone (Morgan, & Dennis, 2004).

Packet switching is the second protocol that is defined to be a digital networking method of communication that arranges the whole of the data transmitted into blocks by the name packets (Reid, 2007). Moreover, packet switching usually increases the efficiency of the network together with the technological convergence within the same network over many applications (Edgeworth, 2017). Within the packages, there is always a payload together with headers where the hardware usually uses the information in the header to direct packets to where the payloads are taken from ad used by the application software (Morgan, & Dennis, 2004).

Considering the data transmission technology within the packet switching, users are always used to sharing common career resources for a reason the efficient use of its infrastructure (Reid, 2007). Moreover, the networks have connections within the carrier networks hence several clients can share the carrier’s network. Accordingly, the virtual circuit can then be created by the carriers amongst the customer’s site of which data packets are then delivered through the network. However, the packet switching usually makes the allocation of bandwidth in the case when the block of data is ready to be sent (Edgeworth, 2017). The packet switching is always much more efficient than the pre-allocation techniques to reduce wastage of the bandwidth resources available.

The third protocol is the circuit switching protocol (Reid, 2007). However, this is a method of telecommunication network implementation where the two nodes create a communication channel within the network before they can communicate. However, the circuit usually guarantees the channel with full bandwidth and remains in connection within a specified communication session (Edgeworth, 2017). For instance, when one telephone receives a call from the other phone, the switches within the phone exchanges involved always creates a continuous wire circuit between the two telephones until the call is terminated (Morgan, & Dennis, 2004).

Regarding data and bandwidth transmission within the circuit switching protocol, there is usually room for data connections to be established in times of need and then stopped when through with communication (Reid, 2007). However, circuit switching usually differs from packet switching in the manner that circuit switching does the division of the data to be transmitted into packets to be transmitted through the network independently. However, the packet switching allows the sharing of the network links by the packets from several communication sessions in the competition thus resulting in a loss of quality of the service (Edgeworth, 2017).


Edgeworth, B. (2017). Cisco Intelligent WAN (IWAN. Indianapolis, Indiana: Cisco Press.

Morgan, B. & Dennis, C. (2004). CCNP BCRAN exam certification guide: CCNP self-study. Indianapolis, IN Cisco Press.

Reid, A. (2007). Wan technologies: CCNA 4 companion guide. Indianapolis, Ind: Cisco Press