Data comprises of unrefined facts. Information is a compilation of facts coordinated in order to have more significance over the facts themselves. Transforming data into information is a procedure or a collection of plausibly connected tasks carried out to attain a specific outcome. This procedure of determining connections between various data requires knowledge. Knowledge, therefore, are structures or tenets, guidelines, and practices used to choose, arrange, and maneuver data to make it appropriate tasks (Dalkir 25-28). Softwares help to aid in the compilation of data, imperatives, practices, and connections to be adhered to by using various management systems.
Q 2 Cloud Computing
Cloud computing refers to technologies that present calculation, software, data retrieval, and storage packages that do not need purchaser knowledge of the physical position and configuration of the system that offers the services (Mell and Grance 50-51). It enables organizations to get rid of computer related expenses swiftly when human resources level fall, which is applied to handle expenditures related to seasonal, or project-based workers, or variations in the company-cycle, or an economic slump. Cloud computers can be reassembled to suit an organizational requirement. Cloud computing as well presents an organization with in-house and external capability to properly check a new aspect, improve, and show a scenario to a customer. Additionally, cloud computing services are more cost effective and effective compared to installing one’s own software (Mell and Grance 52-53). However, many security issues need to be addressed when opting for cloud solutions compared to in-house software solution. Cloud computing requires a disaster recovery plan that needs to be tested and regularly revised. Finally, the service may not be always as beneficial and economical as it appears.
Q 3 Five-Component Framework
Computer hardware, software, data, procedures, and people are the five major components that should work together to create a computer-based information system (Laudon and Laudon 23-25). The integrated services, digital network, and modem are specific illustrations of hardware applied to the computer system in Starbucks Corporation. These hardware are joined to the Starbuck’s computer coordination and the company’s complex system. The company uses Windows based softwares for their processors. Starbucks operates applications that assist in their business operations, such as the point of sale softwares, and Excel. Starbucks employs IT managers and IS managers who ensure company procedures are followed and that the entire computer system is effective. The company’s Manager Work station prepares and transmits information to all their restaurants to ensure there is effective management of the stores operated by the company.
Q 4 Data Management
Modern relational databases are more efficient and effective in data management in organizations as they enable access to powerful query capacities that allow easy conversion and retrieval of data hence minimizing the numerous limitations in data analysis. Relational databases as well facilitates in data cleanup thereby ensuring there is no duplication and redundant data (Khurana and Mandke 487-503). Additionally, restructuring of data aids in managing clean data in a relational database rather than flat files, therefore, ensuring there is data integrity. Data restructuring as well assists in minimizing redesigning models when extending the database framework. Restructuring helps to make the data model more useful and informative to its users and avoid bias towards any specific model of querying
Q 5 Threats
Every institution, be it a sole proprietorship or a corporation must ensure the security of its overall system. The security of the system ensures that threats are identified, analyzed, and prioritized. Additionally, security is important as it enables an organization to develop policies and strategies to minimize the probability of those threats taking place, and have emergency plans ready in case they occur. Information systems managers help to identify threats and vulnerabilities of an organization system through formulating a security plan, conducting a pragmatic assessment of the financial and non-pecuniary threats of the company (Stair and Reynolds 15-25). Examples of such threats facing organizations today encompass the errors and omissions that compromise the data and system integrity of the organization. Fraud and theft of an organization’s computer system are another major threat today as well as employee sabotage where authorized workers cause damage, mischief, and sabotage.
Dalkir, Kimiz. Knowledge management in theory and practice. London: Routledge, 2013. Print.
Khurana, Reema, and Vijay V. Mandke. “Business process modeling with information integrity.” Business Process Management Journal 15.4 (2009): 487-503.
Laudon, Kenneth C., and Jane Price Laudon. Essentials of management information systems. New Jersey: Pearson, 2011. Print.
Mell, Peter, and Tim Grance. “The NIST definition of cloud computing.” National Institute of Standards and Technology 53.6 (2009): 50-53.
Stair, Ralph, and George Reynolds. Fundamentals of information systems. New York: Cengage Learning, 2013. Print.