Cloning involves creation of a genetic duplication of a cell tissue or organism. The product created from the process and with similar genetic composition is refereed to as a clone. There are examples of animals that have been cloned. For example, Dolly the sheep produced from somatic cells in 1996 was a clone (McLaren, 2000). She was the first mammal to be successfully cloned in Scotland. The process involved Dolly’s embryo being inserted in a female sheep enabling development of a pregnancy. News about Dolly’s existence was made public later in 1997. Although she was born normally, she but died six years later. This however did not hinder cloning (Lasse & Sandoe, 2005).
Types of Cloning
This entails the reproduction of a DNA cell. A DNA string is joined with a plasmid in order to replicate itself and produce several DNA strings with the same code. The plasmid is called vector. The DNA is united with the cloning vector. This it is referred to as recombinant DNA molecule. The recombinant DNA molecule is put to a receiving cell which is different and reproduced with the cell DNA. DNA cloning is mainly divided into four steps. The first step involves fragmentation which refers to splitting of DNA strands. Ligation is the second part through which DNA parts are jointly stuck together in a given order. Thirdly, the transfection process is undertaken whereby the new DNA is put into cells. The final step involves screening in order to pick cells that were transfected with new DNA. Thus, DNA Fragment combined with Vector leads to Recombinant vector (Peter, 2005).
Advantage of DNA Cloning
DNA cloning is important due to its numerous advantages. Through the replication of DNA, researcher’s human genome is thoroughly researched. This enables easy identification of genes that give rise to a particular disease. This process has therefore established gene therapy during which bad genes are removed and substituted with viable high quality genes. It is therefore clear that societies will never be harmed through the process of DNA cloning. Instead, the process has an ability to keep societies safe especially in case of future problems. Thus, the idea of DNA cloning should be undertaken by individuals desiring to prevent a particular problem in future without enhancing the issue. For example, an ineffective gene should be substituted with an effective one through a process called preventive therapy. Thus, this form of therapy ought to be allowed without relying on enhancing therapy which is often undertaken for luxury and pleasure (Peter, 2005).
This is the process of producing a living thing such as human beings with similar nuclear DNA string. It is done through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The first process involves the organism’s cell that will be replicated being removed. Consequently, a feminine cell is extracted. Lastly, DNA is acquired from donor cell. These processes are fused allowing the entire DNA from the donor to be joined with the female cell nucleus to ensure carries the clone children. This type of cloning was applied to produce Dolly sheep (McLaren, 2000). Dolly however died after suffering from lung cancer and arthritis. Thus, this cloning process can be complex in the modern world (Eibert, 1999).
Advantages of Reproductive Cloning
There are various benefits associated with reproductive cloning. Foremost, it can offer an alternative to parents without an ability to bear children. This type of cloning can therefore be applied to serve and address their desires and needs to bear with the same genetic composition. Studies have also shown reproductive cloning has a high chance of growing and developing. This however requires several researches on reproductive cloning to give rise to efficient ways the society can benefit. This cloning process should therefore be allowed in order for organisms and/or human beings to be empowered in reproducing under normal circumstances. This is especially vital in safeguarding organisms likely to vanish or become extinct (Eibert, 1999).
This type of cloning is related to reproductive cloning. It however differs from reproductive cloning as embryos are destroyed before maturity. Thus, it aims at acquiring embryos in order to grow them. It however controls their growth process to avoid the embryo growing beyond the stage it can be utilized for research purposes. Therapeutic cloning therefore does not aim at producing human beings. Instead, it seeks at gathering stem cells used to study human development and curing diseases. As a result, therapeutic cloning presents a great set back. This is because an embryo successfully cloned is utilized for research purposes before being destroyed. This has caused major social concerns particularly with activists of rights of birth. Thus, therapeutic cloning is beneficial especially for research purposes. Several arguments however have been raised claiming that, therapeutic cloning is downgrading human life at the expense of science. It is therefore regarded as ethically and morally wrong as it has ability to destroy an existing life (Lasse & Sandoe, 2005).
Advantages of Therapeutic cloning
As a result, therapeutic cloning should be allowed as it presents greater advantages than disadvantages. The first advantage which is an apparent reference to DNA cloning involves use of technology to enable provision of different organs. This serves human beings in dire need of such unique and necessary organs. Thus, the advancement in this technology will lead to stem cells produced in an array from human bodies to be manipulated. Consequently, they will be used to produce viable organs. Currently, there is a deficiency of these crucial organs across global nations. Thus, several human beings suffering need a surplus supply of these crucial organs. Incorporating this technology will therefore trim down the pandemic saving several lives (Lasse & Sandoe, 2005).
Eibert, M. D. (1999). Human Cloning: Myths, Medical Benefits and Constitutional Rights.
Lassen, J., & Sandøe, P. (2005). After Dolly—Ethical Limits to the Use of Biotechnology on Farm Animals. Elsevier.
McLaren, A. (2000). Cloning: Pathways to a Pluripotent Future. Pearson Education.
Peter, J. R. (2005). I-Genetics: A Molecular Approach. San Francisco, California, United States of America: Pearson Education.