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Annotated Bibliography on Resource Efficiency and Urban Growth and Development



Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation


Bergmann, A., Günther, E., & Kara, S. (2017). Resource efficiency and an integral framework for performance measurement. Sustainable Development25(2), 150-165. Retrieved from

This source argues that the scarcity of natural resources and resultant price increases are two major challenges related to sustainability that corporations face today. It argues that a solution to these challenges is resource efficiency. Unfortunately, many corporations are unaware of the term’s operationalization into appropriate indicators or the measurement of progress towards resource efficiency.

The source’s usefulness concerning the topic of resource efficiency and urban growth and development is that it highlights the strategies used to achieve resource efficiency, such as recycling of waste, reduction of energy consumption per area, reduction of water consumption in production, and others. It also highlights potentials risks such as water depletion as well as mineral and fossil depletion that might result from overdependence on limited resources.

Dodman, D., Diep, L., & Colenbrander, S. (2017). Resilience and resource efficiency in cities. UNEP, Nairobi. Retrieved from

This source explores resilience and resource efficiency in cities. It argues that urban areas accounted for almost 54 percent of the global population as of 2014. There has been a continued increase in the urban population globally, resulting in resource scarcity that can only be addressed through resource efficiency.

The source is useful to the topic as it highlights roles or benefits of resource efficiency to cities, including higher productivity at a lower cost, job creation, and local economies, as well as reduction of GHG emissions, ecological conservation, and integration.

Hoballah, A., Peter, C., & United Nations Environment Program. (2012). Sustainable, resource efficient cities: Making it happen!. UNEP. Retrieved from

This source states that cities of the 21st century are the largest sites of human settlement and are associated with increased consumption of available resources. The quality of life in cities today is strongly linked to the management of available natural resources. Resource efficiency is fundamental in the management of available natural resources.

This source is beneficial or relevant to the chosen topic through its statement that resource-efficient cities have greater productivity and innovation that are accompanied by lower costs and reduced environmental impacts.

Pastore, M. C., & Morello, E. (2017). Resource Efficiency and Resilience in Sub-Saharan African Cities: Towards Community Metabolism. Sustainable Urban Development and Globalization Research for Development, 407–415. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-61988-0_31

The authors explore resource efficiency and resilience in sub-Saharan African cities and state that the integration of resource efficiency and sustainability strategies are important in the achievement of successful urban regeneration. They state that resource efficiency should focus on energy, mobility, food, water, and waste.

The source is useful concerning the above topic as it highlights how avoidance or reduction in energy costs presents a good opportunity for urban regeneration.

Piña, A., William, H., & Pardo Martínez, C. I. (2016). Development and urban sustainability: An analysis of efficiency using data envelopment analysis. Sustainability8(2), 148.

This source asserts that a majority of cities in the developing world have undergone rapid growth and expansion, and experience increasing environmental problems as a result. The changes witnessed in these cities from demographic and environmental perspectives have resulted in discussions on urban sustainability and development, which can be achieved through resource efficiency.

The article is credible and relevant to the topic above as it stresses that amidst the job creation opportunities in urban areas resulting from resource efficiency, there must be an improvement in the rights of workers and their social protection while in the created opportunities.

Schiller, G. (2007). Urban infrastructure: Challenges for resource efficiency in the building stock. Building Research & Information35(4), 399-411.

The source argues that modern society focuses on the development of urban infrastructure, which comes with an increased demand for raw materials for housing and infrastructure construction. The increased consumption of raw materials is considered detrimental to the environment. Resource efficiency is a solution to the detrimental effects on the environment caused by the increased consumption of raw materials.

This source is relevant to the topic as it highlights some of the strategies of energy efficiency integral to urban development. These strategies include efficient deployment, recycling, and disposal of mineral raw materials, thereby benefiting the environment.

UNEP. (2012). Global Initiative for Resource Efficient Cities. Retrieved from

This source contends that resource efficiency in cities provides opportunities to address environmental and social challenges. The solution to environmental and social challenges creates major financial savings for cities.

This source is beneficial to the topic of resource efficiency and urban growth and development as it suggests that resource efficiency promotes sustainable consumption and production and facilitates a transition to a green economy, thus paving the way for urban growth and development.

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