Sample Research Paper on Is Homosexuality Genetically Based in individuals?

Homosexuality refers to the sexual and romantic attraction between same-sex members.
The American psychiatric association identified homosexuality as a mental illness condition
which could be cured through therapy. Several people are interested in understanding the biology
behind homosexuality behaviors. Scientists have over time carried surveys and researches to
identify the “Gay gene” which is a genome suspected to be involved in homosexuality. However,
they have failed to identify any specific gene that causes homosexuality in individuals. Whereas
genes play a part in shaping an individual sexual orientation, biological factors and
environmental factors also help determine the sexuality of an individual. This paper will seek to
determine whether homosexuality is a result of individual genetic composition or simply a
lifestyle choice.
To answer the question, when need first to identify if individuals are born gay. Most
people seek the answer to the question “are people born gay?” During conception, males identify
with XY chromosomes which enable the development of male genitals. Females are formed by a
combination of two X chromosomes (XX) which allows the development of female genitals.
Chromosomes are gene holding structures that give body instructions on how to function and
develop. Therefore, the XY chromosomes are sex determinants chromosomes. However, what
happens in case of odd pairing that result in YY chromosomes? The SRY gene is the gene
responsible for the development of male phenotypes. If a mutation occurs in the SRY gene, it
could lead to YY chromosome pairing, which causes the development of female phenotypes in
the embryo. The males born will have XYY chromosomes, a condition is known as Jacobs’s
syndrome. However, these individuals will still have normal sexual development. Therefore,
individuals are not born gay.


Genes are functional units of heredity made of DNA. Offspring inherit genes from their
parents which shapes their immunity to some diseases and their physical traits such as height.
However, not all parental aspects are passed to the offspring. Sexual orientation is a romantic or
sexual attraction pattern. Scientists argue although it is unclear, biology largely shapes the sexual
orientation of an individual at a very early stage without presence environmental and social
factors (Jordan, 2020). Scientists are yet to prove whether sexual orientation is a heritable trait.
However, several studies suggest that the parent’s sexual orientation could shape the offspring’s
sexual orientation.
Several genes have been linked to same-sex attractions. Fucose Mutarotase has been
identified to cause same-sex attractions. Deletion of the gene in the male mouse’s caused them to
be attracted to another male mouse. However, there is no evidence that homosexual people lack
Fucose Mutarotase, which causes them to be attracted to same sex individuals. Another gene
associated with sexual orientation is TRPC2. The gene enables animals to identify, respond to
and attract mating partners that are suitable to them (Liman & Dulac, 2007). Disruption of
TRPC2 can cause individuals to start behaving like the opposite gender. Females start behaving
like males, while males act like females.
Genes account for 8-25% of same-sex behavior. Scientists have failed to identify a
specific gene that shapes individual sexual orientation (Jordan, 2020). However, the integration
between several genes, hormones and environmental factors could trigger same-sex attractions.
Testosterone hormones stimulate the development of secondary sexual characteristics in male,
such as deepening of the voice. Estrogen is a female hormone that helps in the development of
secondary sexual characteristics such as enlargement of breasts, small muscles and soft voice.
Presence of excess testosterone hormone in females causes them to develop male-like sexual


characteristics. Such women have big muscles and a deep voice which makes them sound like
men. Men who have high levels of estrogen also develop female-like traits. Therefore, such
individuals might be attracted to same-sex individuals or identify as another gender.
Social and family factors also influence homosexual behavior. Absence of mothers in
female’s life may cause them to be lesbians. In gay families where they adopt children, the
adopted children are highly likely to be attracted to same-sex individuals. Most societies view
homosexuality as evil and punish gay people. However, in communities where such conditions
do not exist, individuals are likely to be free to choose their sexual orientation. Presence of older
brother and older sisters also trigger homosexuality in males and females, respectively.
It is important to note that there is a vast difference between sexual orientation and sexual
activity. Individuals may be attracted to same-sex individuals but have no sexual activity with
them. Sexual preference gives individuals a choice of who to have sex with. For this purpose, an
individual has to find someone they are emotionally attracted to. Therefore sexual activities may
not entirely relate to sexual orientation. Most males are married to women and still have an
attraction towards men.
In conclusion, sexual orientation has been a subject of interest to scientists. Scientists are
working hard to find the “gay gene” which they suspect influences homosexual behaviors.
Individuals fear that identification of the gene will help scientists cure gay behavior. However,
most people argue that homosexuality is a choice as people choose their sexual preference and
who they like. Scientists have disapproved this notion by concluding that sexual attraction is not
an individual choice. Several factors drive the individual’s attraction towards the opposite
gender. Such attraction is influenced by genes, hormones, biological and environmental factors.


There is no single gene responsible for sexual orientation, and therefore, homosexuality is not
genetically based.



Liman, E. R., & Dulac, C. (2007). TRPC2 and the molecular biology of pheromone detection in
mammals. TRP ion channel function in sensory transduction and cellular signaling
cascades, 45-53.
Jordan, B. (2020). End of the road for the