Sample Research Paper on Challenges Facing Cybersecurity

Cybersecurity is the process of protecting computer software, data, interconnected
systems and hardware from the possible cyber attacks. Therefore, cybersecurity ensures
confidentiality, integrity and availability of data through the protection of access by unauthorised
parties. Institutions invest a lot of resources in implementing robust cybersecurity systems to
ensure application, information, operational and network security (Dawson, & Nuñez 2018). The
cybersecurity systems provide safety by spreading multiple layers of security software across
programs, networks and computers. However, to ensure the effectiveness of the cyber security
systems, they must be operated by experienced personnel who are the ability to make smart
cyber defence choices. Cybersecurity attacks and threats are classified into ransom, malware,
social engineering and phishing attacks. The essay addresses the challenges that face
cybersecurity and the possible solutions to the problems.
AI Expansion
The evolvement of computer systems and software is one of the significant challenges in
the world of cybersecurity. In particular, the emergence of Artificial Intelligence technology
which enhances machine learning by mimic the functioning of the natural brain (Rudner 2013).
AI technology has been evolving continuously and used in various fields such as medical
surgeries, automation of vehicles, and neural systems in smartphones. More so, the AI machines
can make their own decisions and way they respond based on learnings from past experiences.
However, hackers are taking advantage of technology to make the threats more sophisticated.
For instance, ordinary spear phishing attacks can become complicated when coded using
artificial intelligence technology.

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Additionally, hackers will have the capacity to intrude big networks within short periods
and also prevent cyber security systems using the smart AI technology that can notice the
security software. The intelligent power grid is more vulnerable to the AI-enhanced cyber attacks
since data can be manipulated to activate a blackout which can be used to manage the users
(Rudner 2013). More so complicated AI systems such as automated cars and surgery machines
may cause massive damages if they get affected by malicious software. AI technology may also
help the hackers in reduced the workload involved while cracking passwords by lowering the
probabilities. The AI systems have high learning capacities and thus may be manipulated to
collect personal data which can be extracted from social media platforms, code repositories and
support forums. Therefore, cybersecurity professions need also to use the AI technology to come
up with sophisticated security systems that can produce the AI machines from attacks thus
protecting the innocent users.

Internet of Things
The interconnection of multiple devices is a significant challenge that many cyber
attackers have taken advantage of due to the interconnection of computer devices. Currently
most people have a tablet in their cars, a smartphone in their pockets, a computer at work and a
tv at home where all the devices are interconnected to the same user (Lee, & Lee 2015). More so,
the emergence of the internet of things has ensured that every device is interconnected to each
other to an extent the refrigerator can update the user when the milk is almost finished. Alexa
and google assistants, on the other hand, can make your coffee before you get home, control the
lighting system of the house, order a pizza and can easily control the tv just by word of mouth.
The interconnection comes with great benefits since the user can manage all their devices

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without much difficulty. However, the interconnection and internet of things pose many threats
to the users since once one of the devices faces cyber attacks, the other methods can be easily
manipulated. A recent study has revealed that 80% of the internet of things devices face serious
security breaches (Stojkoska & Trivodaliev 2017). The vulnerabilities emerge due to insecure
web interfaces, lack of authentication methods, and weak data transfers. More so, most users of
the IoT lack sufficient knowledge on cyber attacks and thus leave them open to the attacks.
Cybersecurity professionals must, therefore, be aware of the vulnerabilities that face the users by
integrating the user verification, password requirements, two-factor authentication, sophisticated
security protocols and time-out sessions.
State Sponsored Attacks
The most challenging areas of cybersecurity are the rise of nation-state cyber-attacks.
Such attacks are usually motivated by politics and are not aimed at generating money but mostly
to acquire information that is utilized to manipulate other politicians. Furthermore, the states'
trade, economy, infrastructure, communication, transport and business usually incorporate IT-
enabled services, and thus, the attackers can weaken the economy or foundation of the nation.
Recently, the US and UK revealed how state-sponsored cyber-attacks occurred when they
presented a statement where the two countries blamed Russian for the cyber-attacks on
businesses and citizens (Taddeo 2017). The state-sponsored cyber attacks also target electronic
voting devices and system so that they can still vote or manipulate public opinions. The raids
form a big challenge since they are well funded, complicated and target specific, which allows
them to be highly disruptive. States must ensure the independence of the cybersecurity agencies
to prevent manipulation by political parties. Governments should also provide significant
security updates on the internal networks and also isolate them the internet.

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Prevention of ransomware attacks has become a significant challenge in cybersecurity
due to the increasing miniaturization of computers, CCTV cameras, sensors and smartphones in
the internet of things. Ransomware attacks have been there and are continually increasing as
more people become victims of the attacks. Hackers have developed new ways to spread virus
and malware software into customers and business organizations (Hampton, & Baig 2015). Once
affected, the ransomware can only be uplifted when the subject meets the demands of the hacker.
The big challenge of the ransomware is that many people who fall, victims, usually do not back
up data systems or disaster recovery solutions. Attackers may attack smart cars, target factory
lines and other devices such as home appliances. The fear of ransomware was experienced in
2016 when significant companies' servers, including Netflix, Twitter, PayPal and NYTimes were
intruded, and customer personal data was stolen (Wang & Lu 2013). More so, lack of skilled and
qualified staff in the cybersecurity system has contributed a lot in the ransomware attacks since
the teams are not able to detect the attacks earlier enough before they happen. Less qualified and
skilled staffs mean that firms will lack the required expertise to deal with the cyber-attacks.
However, most organizations have decided to invest in robots using AI systems in providing a
secure platform against the attacks. The robots are efficient since they can detect the attacks on
time, learn other techniques and block the intruders from accessing or manipulating data. More
so, the robot cyber will not need to be paid per hour like human labour thus increasing their
In conclusion, cybersecurity faces many challenges, including the development of AI-
based virus and malware, state-sponsored attacks, ransomware and vulnerability of the internet
of things paradigm. Governments and private entities ought to invest in cybersecurity projects to

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compete with the ever-developing cyber-attacks. The rise of quantum computing and Artificial
Intelligence technology lays both opportunity and challenges to cyber security. However, if the
techniques can be used effectively, they can advance cybersecurity to another level by use of
complex algorithms that can detect and eliminate malware and virus attacks.

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Annotated Bibliography

Dawson, M., & Nuñez, P. M. T. (2018). Issues in Cybersecurity: Security Challenges and
Problems in the Dominican Republic. Land Forces Academy Review, 23(3), 173-180.
Dawson is a professor while Nunez is a computer researcher and his current project is
High-performance IoT middleware development. Both authors are well knowledgeable
on the issue of cybersecurity.
Hampton, N., & Baig, Z. A. (2015). Ransomware: Emergence of the cyber-extortion menace.
The research paper is crucial in this article because it examines the evolvement of viruses
and malware over three decades. More so, the research investigates the emergence of
ransomware in cyber-attacks and thus portrays the key findings.
Lee, I., & Lee, K. (2015). The Internet of Things (IoT): Applications, investments, and
challenges for enterprises. Business Horizons, 58(4), 431-440. Lee and Lee K are both
specialists in machine learning, big data, cloud computing and IoT. Therefore, the authors
display vast experience and knowledge in addressing challenges in cyber security.
Rudner, M. (2013). Cyber-threats to critical national infrastructure: An intelligence
challenge. International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, 26(3), 453-481.
The author is a well-recognized research professor who has invested his research skills in
artificial intelligence and cybersecurity. The article addresses how AI technology poses
significant challenges in cybersecurity.
Stojkoska, B. L. R., & Trivodaliev, K. V. (2017). A review of Internet of Things for the smart
home: Challenges and solutions. Journal of Cleaner Production, 140, 1454-1464. Both
authors are professors within the faculty of computer science and engineering and have

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specialised in the internet of things technology. The book reveals how IoT faces
significant cyber-attacks.
Wang, W., & Lu, Z. (2013). Cybersecurity in the smart grid: Survey and challenges. Computer
networks, 57(5), 1344-1371. The article explains the concept of the smart grid, which is
referred to as the power system of the generation and unveils the significant weaknesses
of the system in cybersecurity. Additionally, the authors have specialized in wireless
networking and networking security and thus give a deep understanding of the cyber
security challenges within the smart power grid system.
Taddeo, M. (2017). Deterrence by norms to stop interstate cyber-attacks. Minds and
Machines, 27(3), 387-392. Taddeo is a researcher in the Oxford Internet Institute and
provides essential information about algorithms and other ways that can harden the
cyber-security system. The article offers ways that cyber security can stop cyber attacks
amongst nations and put an end to state-sponsored attacks.