Sample Research Paper on Alternative Forms of Tourism and Ethical Dilemmas

Buckley, Ralf. "Sustainable Tourism: Research and Reality." Annals of Tourism Research, 2012,
pp. 528–546.
Most tourism researchers initially turned their attention to social and environmental
issues such as healthcare, environment, economy, and agriculture (Buckley 528). The
research in science, environment, resource management, global change, human health,
and economics is relevant in the achievement of sustainable tourism. For countries to
improve social and environmental performance across the entire tourism industry, both
innovation and adoption of new policies is required.

In health tourism, Holdaway, Jennifer, et al. explore how the mobility of health workers
has contributed to the change of policies in both China and India (269). The author's
established that although many healthcare professionals are driven by their desires to
grow their careers and increase their incomes, a good number of these professionals move
to overseas countries to gain ideas and skills that they perceive as helpful in the
development of the healthcare system in their nations. Holdaway, Jennifer, et al. found
that many governments around the world and private foundations have encouraged and
supported overseas education because the gained skills would not only be helpful to the
people but also to the society.

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From the study carried out by the authors of this article, the participants gained a lot from
the time spent overseas in many aspects apart from practical skills. Most of the
participants developed a responsibility of individual openness and equality in their
working environments, which is interactions between doctors and patients. In India and
China, most of the medical study programs put more emphasis on biomedical and
curative approaches that reproduce interventionist practices of the developed nations.
Holdaway, Jennifer, et al. found out that there was little training in the integrated
practices in public health that emphasize prevention of diseases and low-cost treatments.
The research also indicated on how global knowledge sharing can in many ways assist
the professional migrants to gain international experiences that may change the ways in
which they can contribute to the policy and institutional developments in their countries.

Sustainable tourism can also be achieved through of cultural tourism, where Nataša
Urošević explores on how cultural identity and tourism are interlinked in today's
globalized world (67). The author indicates that with the current global unified values and
rapidly changing economic, political, and social practices, tourism provides a chance for
cultural and social contact, communication, and cultural exchange. Nataša Urošević
explores the increasing urge for confirmation of local cultural identities as well as tourists
increased search for identity as an aftermath of the globalization of cultural practices. The
author's research was conducted in Pula, Croatia, with an emphasis on heritage tourism,
creative industries, multiculturalism, and the local way of life.

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Nataša Urošević discovers that culture is one of the most important reasons for people to
visit Pula. The locals, as well as visitors, agree that the city is recognizable mainly
because of it's exceptional cultural, historical, and natural heritage, with the original
cultural identity being the Amphitheatre and the old town core with the Roman
monuments. The research shows a great potential for the growth of the cultural and
creative tourism through attractions covering the most notable elements of identity and
heritage. The growth of cultural and creative tourism can be essential to solving issues
such as seasonality, increase employment, and attract new and recession-resistant areas of
the cultural tourists.

To achieve sustainable tourism through agrotourism, Schilling, Attavanich, and Jin
explore the effects of agritourism on farm productivity (69). In this research, the authors
have adopted the Census of Agriculture records as their source of information and utilize
the propensity score matching to establish the impacts of agritourism on the net income
per acre of New Jersey farms. In most small farms, specifically in the Northeast states,
agritourism has become a necessary adaptation strategy. Schilling, Attavanich, and Jin
established that agritourism significantly increases profits among lifestyle farms. The
authors found strong support that the adoption of agritourism can be used as an
agricultural economic development strategy. The policy makers in different nations with
interests in farm retention can consider plans to stimulate and sustain agritourism, which
includes stronger linkages of agritourism into travel and tourism promotions. The authors
also suggest that Expanded Cooperative Extension programming is required to support

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the agritourism operators in sectors such as hospitality, farm safety, risk and liability
management, marketing, and enterprise budgeting.

The accessment of ecotourism can be analysed from the works of Zambrano, Durham,
and Broadbent where they explore the social and environmental impacts of ecotourism,
specifically in the Osa Penisula of Costa Rica (62). In their study, the authors established
that ecotourism brings in a promise to promote responsible traveling to natural sites and
make a positive contribution to environmental conservation and improve the living
conditions of the local communities. The study mainly focuses on the land-use effect of
the Lapa Rios (LR) lodge, by confirming that the LR lodge has contributed significantly
towards the improvement of local livelihoods and environmental conservation. This
protection is evident from the highest rates of reforestation of all the study areas in the
Osa Peninsula.

The authors established that the Lapa Rios was very successful in its campaign to educate
the staff on environmental conservation. Zambrano, Durham, and Broadbent concluded
that Lapa Rios fulfills the definitional promise of ecotourism. This pledge is delivered
through the range of social, economic, and environmental benefits that could be expected
from a lodge. The LR is a perfect example of successful ecotourism that other lodges can
as well copy.

Diaspora tourism is also another approach of achieving sustainable toursim. Huang,
Haller, and Ramshaw describe diaspora tourism as the travel of people in the diaspora to

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their ancestral origins to trace their roots or to gain a connection to their personal heritage
(285). According to Huang, Haller, and Ramshaw, diaspora tourism is unique since the
tourists feel connected to the people, culture, and way of life before even visiting their
destinations. The author's research explores the connection between second generation
immigrants attachments to their familial homelands and their journey back home.

Huang, Haller, and Ramshaw established that there is a relationship between the home
trips by immigrants and their sense of belonging to their country of origin. For the
immigrants, the trips they take in different stages of their lives have different effects. The
diaspora tourism provides the immigrants with the chance to experience and learn about
their traditional culture. The study established that the tourists who are visiting their
ancestral homes care more about the destination than other international visitors. Most of
these tourists maintain a high economic, political, and religious ties to their ancestral
homeland, so in their preceding trips, they will be more interested in sustaining and
improving the well-being of the local people, culture, and environment. The tourism
sector strongly focuses on economic aspects, with attention to the social and
environmental issues.

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Works Cited

A.M.A., Zambrano, Durham W.H. and Broadbent E.N. "Social and environmental effects of
ecotourism in the Osa Peninsula of Costa Rica: The Lapa Rios case." Journal of
Ecotourism (2010): 62-83. Print.
Buckley, Ralf. "Sustainable Tourism: Research and Reality." Annals of Tourism Research
(2012): 528–546.
Holdaway, Jennifer, et al. "Mobility and health sector development in China and India." Social
Science & Medicine (2015): 268-276. Document.
Huang, Wei-Jue, William J Haller and Gregory P Ramshaw. "Diaspora Tourism and Homeland
Attachment: An Exploratory Analysis." Tourism Analysis (2013): 285-296. Print.
Schilling, B J, W Attavanich and Y Jin. "Does Agritourism Enhance Farm Profitability?"
Journal Of Agricultural And Resource Economics (2014): 69-87. Print.
Urošević, Nataša. "cultural identity and cultural tourism:Between the local and the global (a case
study of pula, croatia)." Singidunum Journal of Applied Sciences (2012): 67-76. Print.