Sample Research Paper on Ethical issues in Infertility

Infertility is a topical problem in gynecology, and it requires a delegated approach,
treatment, and analysis. Causes of infertility presently encountered in couples are numerous:
endometriosis, psychological, fibroids, idiopathy, cervical mucus problems, ovarian, anatomical,
and male factors, whereat infertility is most often multifunctional. In most parts of the world,
procreation is synonymous for couples, and if after two to three years they do not manage to bear
any children, there will be a serious agitation and names calling which include bareness, and
infertility. To evade this disdainful treatment of couples without children has led researchers
trying on new things in an attempt in solving the problem of infertility, bareness, and
childlessness through the artificial womb and the practice of artificial insemination which is now
common in western countries. Although, this is heavily criticized on many grounds such as
depersonalizing reproduction by separating genetic, gestation, and social parenthood.

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Ethical issues in Infertility
Psychosocial Distress
Ethical issues of infertility are differed by clinic ethos’ where practitioners explicitly or
implicitly agreed on issues. What is seen as ethically appropriate has changed over time, to
ensure comprehensive care, we must attend to the psychosocial process inherent in infertility and
fertility treatments. Attention to these issues may provide ethical treatment to the patient
.For the past years, emotional distress was associated with infertility and the process of
assisted reproduction, including greater attention to subgroups of infertile women. In
comparison, infertile women who had never conceived had much higher levels of fertility
distress than infertile women who had been pregnant. The study suggests that the psychosocial
primary infertility distinction is based on conception, rather than birth ( Blyth E, 2012)
In other studies, women who did not seek fertility treatment showed less importance to the
idea of parenthood and reported lower levels of self-esteem and life satisfaction compared, to
women who sought treatment regardless of the outcomes. Similarly, it was reported that infertile
women who had undergone treatment reported high levels of distress than those who had not.
For treatment to be efficient clinic personnel may need to work harder to relay counseling
standards and availability, with more emphasis on a couple -level issues, especially those of
sexual health and therapy (Li XH, Ma YG, Geng LH, et al, 2011)

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Commonness of fertility
Infertility is characterized as the insufficiency to conceive a pregnancy after a sensible
time of sex with no contraceptives taken. Fertility has a different meaning in western and non-
western countries (Van Balen and Inhon, 2002). It is a self-goal and a largely personal choice
made by an individual or couple in developed countries, while in non-western countries, having
kids is a social obligation, a task that is due to family and the community. The consequences of
this position are stigmatization and social pressure.
The meaning of parenthood and infertility is mirrored in the motive people have for
wanting to become parents. Kids secure one's marriage, rights of property and inheritance, social
status, and social security in old age and provide the community in maintaining the family name
(Dyer,2007). The significance of infertility is socially constructed and both males and females
play a major role in constricting the social meaning of infertility. It has become a cultural
problem generated by pronatalist and patriarchal ideologies, this is a belief held by society that a
person's social and moral worth is linked to fertility and reproduction (Ulrich and Weatherall,
The more one believes in the cultural construction of infertility, the more one will
believe that infertility should be tackled not by treating the infertile, but by targeting the
ideologies that cause the problem (Sandale lowkey and de lacey,2002) Furthermore because
parenthood has deeper social roots, the social and psychological consequences of childlessness
are more severe, especially for women whose identity and social status depend on the ability to
produce children, and are usually blamed for infertility.

Ethical issues in Infertility 5
Common Treatments
The artificial womb serves as a replacement organ to assist women with damaged or
diseased wombs to conceive, there an embryo is grown outside the body of a woman. This womb
has many benefits, it is seemingly possible it's safer than the mother’s womb because the various
risks of diseases, miscarriages, genetic disorders, pollutants, and genetic disorders would be
completely eradicated. The only consequence the baby will be detached from the natural bond
that exists between mother and child.
Surrogacy happens when an infertile couple arranges with a woman of childbearing age to
bear a child for them for a fee and relinquishes the infant at birth to the commissioning couple.
This is only possible on account that the cause of infertility is traceable to the female couple, not
the male.
In -vitro fertilization, it is a medical technique developed in the 1970s to assist couples with
infertility issues having children. Eggs are surgically removed from the woman and are required
to be fertilized by the husband's or donor's sperm in a receptacle glass, the practice is mostly for
couples in desperate need of children.
It is a fact that infertility has taken a great spectrum of our lives. It is a thing of great
concern, especially for those who are desperately in need of kids. By supporting the development
of low-cost IVF, governments can help make such treatments more widely available, this will
also contribute to changing the existing moral and social disorder so that infertile people will no
longer be discriminated against, furthermore, we should adopt measures to diminish the

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pronatalist ideology. Paying attention to psychosocial and ethical issues of infertility and fertility
treatments makes for better practice, which is beneficial for practitioners and patients alike.

Ethical issues in Infertility 7

. Blyth E. Guidelines for infertility counseling in different countries: is there an emerging trend?

Hum Reprod. 2012;0:1–12.

Dyer SJ. The value of children in African countries – insights
from studies on infertility. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol


Frith L, Jacoby A, Gabbay M. Ethical boundary-work in the
infertility clinic. Soc Health Illness. 2011;33:570–85.
Li XH, Ma YG, Geng LH, et al. Baseline psychological stress and
ovarian norepinephrine levels negatively affect the outcome of in
vitro fertilization. Gyn Endocrin. 2011;27:139–43.

Paul-Simon A. Infertility and multiples. Newborn Infant Nurs Rev. 2011
Rutstein, S O., and I H. Shah. Infecundity, Infertility, and Childlessness in Developing
Countries. DHS Comparative Reports 9. DHS Comparative Reports 2004; 9: 13-50
Van balen F, inhorn MC. introduction. interpreting infertility: a view from the social sciences. in:
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University of California Press, 2002, 3-3