Sample Research Paper on Sexual assault victimization among straight, gay/lesbian, and bisexual college students. Violence and Gender

Hesse-Biber (2014) delineates the nature and procedures of conducing mixed methods
research. The article objective is to define the philosophy of applying the qualitative design in
the context of mixed methods research. It specifically highlights the procedures and protocols
employed and the significance of these approaches when engaging in studies. The article is a
review of a book comprising eight chapters, and commences with the outline of relevant theories
with the consequent chapters exploring the strands of research alongside authentic case studies.
The first chapter begins by defining the mixed methods research concept, and further explains
the difference between mixed research and multi-methods research, as they apply in either
qualitative or quantitative study. In explaining the significance of planning a mixed methods
research, the article identifies them, which include complementarity, initiation, expansion,
triangulation, and development. Chapter two of the content elaborates the fundamental factors
impacting varied research designs, including the mixed methods research. While covering the
concept, the author covers an assortment of information which includes the role of research
flexibility, manipulation of the research questions, effective application of sampling designs, and
the ethical considerations of a researcher with respect to mixed methods research. Various issues
relating to mixed research are covered in chapter three and four. In chapter three, the author
explains the implication of mixed approaches and how they align with mixed study
methodology.
Hesse-Biber (2014) further maintains that this application utilizes effective software;
mostly computer assisted ones such as the CAQDAS software. The interpretive approaches are
addressed in the fourth chapter, whereby the author clarifies how they link with qualitative
designs; more do their focus on comprehending the social phenomena. The fifth chapter covers

M.A THESIS-LITERATURE REVIEW 3
the feminist aspects of studies as they relate with mixed studies. It concludes by indicating
practical examples, which appear in the penultimate chapter, to enable the students and other
researchers to understand the mixed study effectively.
Jackson et al. (2002) explored how often battered women struggle with violent
relationships, and how difficult they find it to terminate them. The study was a development of
previous research whose outcome indicated that women find it difficult to leave violent homes,
and endure the battering, terming the scenario as of grave concern to various medical experts,
more so the clinical practitioners. Jackson et al. (2002) expounded that the impact of
professional intervention in salvaging this lot becomes futile as the domestic violence victims
prefer to return to their batterers, and decide on persevering the challenging aligning this
relationship. The clinical practitioners believed this trend violates the laws governing the
traditional psychological interventions rendering the approach as ineffective. The sample
examined entailed 53 women, mostly involved with domestic violence, and interrogated them.
The results indicated that 92% of these women had endured blows from their batterers, while
40% of the total sample reported to have been conscious as a result of beatings. The results
reported the significance for battered women to undergo screening to determine the possibility of
brain injuries and the possibility of conditions like the post-concussive syndrome developing.
The study concludes that the invention and development of treatment strategies that caters for the
damages arising from battering in female populations is essential.
In their book, Koss et al. (1994) cross-examined the negative implications of male
violence against women. They indicated that this act cause fear, anxiety, and injury in
women across the divide. They further clarified that the repercussions does not spare the
social, ethical, and economical status, and that it affects all women in equal measure. The

M.A THESIS-LITERATURE REVIEW 4
episode further designated that women have been experiencing violence in their routine lives
despite statistical studies underreport these incidences, a scenario that raises a great concern
to the society in general. The prejudice of women through domestic violence impacts the
female gender, even those that are regarded as not the direct targets. Koss et al. (1994)
conducted extensive examination of this nightmare by targeting to address or cover the
physical abuses, sexual assault and any forms of sexual harassments directed towards women
in society. They discovered that most women feel that they are left with no choice but to
endure violence in their homes, schools, communities, and their workplaces. Koss et al.
(1994) designated that research experts have invested their energies in exploring the
literature of the possibility of both physical and psychological impacts impacted from each
form of violence and while exploring the prevention and treatment remedies that would
restore these women to sound life.
Results indicated that the responses of the employee colleagues, friends, and the law
enforces seem to compound rather than mitigate gender violence Koss et al. (1994) resolved
that gender norms have played a massive role in escalating male violence against females,
since they render them as inferior, thereby devaluating them in society. The Authors
concluded that such scenarios create loops by allowing male perpetrators to circumvent
accountability for their deeds. The research conducted by the authors is critical for it offers
other scholars, practitioners, and policymakers an authoritative and humane direction, which
in turn aids that to seek mechanisms that would help in mitigating the vice from the society.
Bergman (1993) explored the abusive live schooling students’ face, which would be
linked with gender violence. It commenced by arguing that students in tertiary institutions who
are in intimate relationships encounter abusive scenarios, where either a boyfriend or a girlfriend

M.A THESIS-LITERATURE REVIEW 5
experiences physical abuse, and are not aware of the protocols to pursue to obtain justice and
protection. The book emphasized the essence of younger adults to know the places they should
report their plights in case they experience such scenarios. The author investigated the rate at
which teens encounter emotional and physical abuses in their relationships, with the outcomes
indicating that 96% had suffered under either their boyfriends or girlfriends. Bergman (1993)
generated this edition to guide young adults to understand the negative impacts of abuse, and
offers guidance on the appropriate channels to pursue when faced with such calamities, while
helping them understand the consequences of such abuses. It for instance advices this group to
seek help from their parents and other adults, and request them to educate them how to go about
with such relationships. Bergman (1993) utilized the book to explore the physical and emotional
abuses, and the remedies the youths should adhere to while seeking justice to their plights. The
themes covered include how to date violence, the signs that a relationship is abusive, detailed
information on how abusive relationships arise, and the actions to take whenever one experiences
abusive relationships, more so from someone loved most. The book covered extensive
information about relationship and love, and mostly targets the youth generations who have been
struggling with abusive relationships for decades.
Smith-Kimble (2020) examined the intensities and avenues created in campuses that
generate abusive relationships. The researchers’ argument based on evidential research
information, which analyzes the relationships in colleges, and how they impact students. The
study explored indicates that more than 13% non-consensual sexual contact occurs in colleges
and other tertiary institutions across the globe. Smith-Kimble (2020) further clarified that issues
related to sexual assault are underreported, with abusive relationships and violence domineering
in those institutions. The article further asserted that several organizations exist which clarifies in

M.A THESIS-LITERATURE REVIEW 6
details about sexual violence while outlining the channels the students should explore whenever
they encounter such injustices. It concluded that it is the government’s desire to see that schools
solve sexual violence and related cases immediately they occur.
Mellins et al. (2017) examined the extent of sexual assault in college campuses, and how
it has become a health issue in the modern society. The results of the study indicated that 22% of
the students joining college reported attempted or fully completed sexual assaults. Mellins et al.
(2017) collected data from large groups of students through random sampling. The samplers
targeted to collect the information regarding varied types of sexual assault experiences and how
they correlate with sociodemographic and risk environment variables. Conley et al. (2017)
explored the prevalence and correlates college sexual assaults and victimization that targeted a
large sample of students. The correlates examined involved the precollege and college-onset
alongside the repeat sexual assaults. He utilized the survey approach to collect data from
students, mostly targeting the first-year students. The outcome specified that more than 20% of
the student enrolling for college experienced broader sexual assault, with women reporting to be
more abused than their male counterparts. The results designated that males are the most abusers
and the trends were worsening as a student joined college but declined as they got used to
college life. Conley et al. (2017) specified that prior victimization before joining college was
closely relating with the victimization while in college, and the rate variation between males and
females was negligible.
Coulter and Rankin (2020) explored the sexual assault and victimization of the sexual
and gender minority students in college, and mostly the undergraduates. It focused on testing the
relationship between college campus’ inclusion of sexual and gender minority students and their
experience on sexual assault and victimization. To approximate the existing relationship between

M.A THESIS-LITERATURE REVIEW 7
the campus climate and sexual abuse experience, Coulter and Rankin (2020) utilized the
multivariable logistic regression alongside the predetermined and estimated equations. Of the
total sample, 5.2% reported to be victimized and assaulted at least once while in college. Of the
total sample, the females were the most prevalent while males were few. The outcome suggested
the essence of enhancing campus climate as a remedy to overcome sexual assaults and
victimization was necessary. Ford and Soto-Marquez (2016) explored the actual preference of
college sexual assault and victimization of heterosexual makes in the United States. The data for
the study was obtained from the Online College Social Life Survey (OCSLS), with the target
sample being 21, 000 learners. Ford and Soto-Marquez (2016) reported that one out of four
gender minorities are sexually abused while in colleges, more so after spending four years in
their respective courses. The methodology utilized, including surveys was critical in showcasing
the theme and justifying the study. Lastly, the sources utilized were current, would be a
testimony that the outcomes were relevant with what was happening on the ground during the
time of study.

Annotated Bibliography

Mellins, C. A., Walsh, K., Sarvet, A. L., Wall, M., Gilbert, L., Santelli, J. S., … & Bah, K.
(2017). Sexual assault incidents among college undergraduates: Prevalence and factors
associated with risk. PLoS one, 12(11), e0186471.
Mellins et al. (2017) examine the extent of sexual assault in college campuses, and how it
has become a health issue in the modern society. The study indicates much concern regarding the
low response rate towards this crisis, a situation that has made it difficult to control or define its
scope. The fact that this act is intense in colleges and campuses is a great concern to the
stakeholders and policymakers, according to Mellins et al. (2017). To explore the intricacy of the

M.A THESIS-LITERATURE REVIEW 8
crisis, the researcher collected data from large groups of students through random sampling. The
samplers targeted to collect the information regarding varied types of sexual assault experiences
and how they correlate with sociodemographic and risk environment variables. To approximate
the test associations and preferences, the researchers utilized tools such as chi-square, and
logistic regression. The results of the study indicated that 22% of the students joining college
reported attempted or fully completed sexual assaults.
The most prevalent cases reported included the oral, vaginal, and romantic touch. Mellins
et al. (2017) indicated that women and gender nonconforming students were victimized most
with the highest rates of 28% and 38% in that order. Men also reported to be assaulted by the
percentage was 12%. The influence of drug or alcohol was the most reported factor to lure
students into attempted sexual assault with cases reported connected with this assault being 50%.
Other commonly reported types of assaults included the physical force, which entailed complete
penetration, and verbal coercion. The researchers also found out that factors such as
heterosexual identity, inability to meet the basic needs, taking part in casual sexual encounters,
and binge drinking were closely associated with sexual assault in most colleges.
Utilization of reliable, peer-reviewed sources to investigate the study theme makes the
source more reliable. The authors utilize implicit language to showcase the methods and results,
as well as apply precise methodologies to elucidate and verify the procedures and outcomes of
the result. Using qualitative approach to investigate a sensitive and controversial theme is the
only weakness. Overall, the information in the source is relevant and resourceful and therefore
can be an important addition to my references for the current project.

M.A THESIS-LITERATURE REVIEW 9
Conley, A. H., Overstreet, C. M., Hawn, S. E., Kendler, K. S., Dick, D. M., & Amstadter, A. B.
(2017). Prevalence and predictors of sexual assault among a college sample. Journal of
American college health, 65(1), 41-49.
Conley et al. (2017) explored the prevalence and correlates college sexual assaults and
victimization that targeted a large sample of students. The correlates examined involved the
precollege and college-onset alongside the repeat sexual assaults. The target sample included
7,603 students, who were both college leavers, and those undertaking their studies. The ultimate
objective was to investigate the time of insults reported among this representative group. Conley
et al. (2017) utilized the survey approach to collect data from students, mostly targeting the first-
year students. They were to respond on their exposure to any forms of sexual assault before,
during and after leaving college. The reassessment of sexual assault was conducted after each
and every spring period to determine whether the trend has been regular or declined.
The outcome indicated that more than 20% of the student enrolling for college
experienced broader sexual assault, with women reporting to be more abused than their male
counterparts. The results indicated that males are the most abusers and the trends were worsening
as a student joined college but declined as they got used to college life. Conley et al. (2017)
specified that prior victimization before joining college was closely relating with the
victimization while in college, and the rate variation between males and females was negligible.
The results led to the conclusion that urgent intervention to control sexual assault cases in
colleges in necessary to ensure that learners are safer and focusing whenever they are in college.
Using of a broad study sample and taking longer period to review the results makes the
approach reliable and credible regarding this research. Conley et al. (2017) have also utilized
verified and current sources to testify or ascertain the situation discussed. The methodologies and

M.A THESIS-LITERATURE REVIEW 10
use of effective analysis tools such as Chi-Square makes the review even more promising.
Nonetheless, the language utilized to explain the methodologies is complex, which is the
weakness that destructs. However, the theme discussed is relevant because it addresses the
subject of sexual abuse and victimization, which is also the topic for the current study, thus
relevant and one of the authentic source.
Coulter, R. W., & Rankin, S. R. (2020). College sexual assault and campus climate for sexual-
and gender-minority undergraduate students. Journal of interpersonal violence, 35(5-6),
1351-1366.
Coulter and Rankin (2020) seek to explore the sexual assault and victimization of the
sexual and gender minority students in college, and mostly the undergraduates. It is a
development of previous studies, which investigated the impact of social environments on the
victimization and sexual abuse of transgender, and other sexual minority groups. It focuses on
testing the relationship between college campus’ inclusion of sexual and gender minority
students and their experience on sexual assault and victimization. Coulter and Rankin (2020)
based the study on the subject of sexual assault and victimization of college students, as
prioritized by the Institute of Medicine, originally initiated by president Obama, in his famous
House Task Force to safeguard students from sexual assault. The study methodology entailed
collecting data through a survey from student representatives. The target sample was the gender
minority undergraduates totaling to 1,925. The sample was derived from college institutions
from across 50 states in America.
The independent variable was experiencing sexual assault by students at college, with the
primary independent variable being campus climate as defined by the intensity of abuse inflicted
of gender and sexual minorities. To approximate the existing relationship between the campus

M.A THESIS-LITERATURE REVIEW 11
climate and sexual abuse experience, Coulter and Rankin (2020) utilized the multivariable
logistic regression alongside the predetermined and estimated equations. Of the total sample,
5.2% reported to be victimized and assaulted at least once while in college. Of the total sample,
the females were the most prevalent while males were few. The outcome suggested the essence
of enhancing campus climate as a remedy to overcome sexual assaults and victimization was
necessary. The college practitioners and administrators were advised to team with the
coordinators of sexual assault prevention programs and policies to overcome the crisis, which
has been reported to be a serious nightmare in the United States.
The use of authentic and peer reviewed sources alongside the effective methodologies to
investigate the subject makes the results to be credible and reliable. Moreover, the Coulter and
Rankin (2020) have utilized a coherent language alongside the application of ethical procedures
to showcase his outcomes. However, some sources utilized are not current, or up to date, thus do
not represent the real happenings during the period of research. Nonetheless, the information
utilized is resourceful and maintain the subject of sexual assault and victimization, which is the
topic for the current studies. The information in the source can easily be bought into the current
studies.
Ford, J., & Soto-Marquez, J. G. (2016). Sexual assault victimization among straight, gay/lesbian,
and bisexual college students. Violence and Gender, 3(2), 107-115.
Ford and Soto-Marquez (2016) explore the actual preference of college sexual assault and
victimization of heterosexual makes in the United States. The study is a development of previous
studies which investigated the impact of sexual assault in college students, but which left the gap
regarding this impact of gender and sexual minorities. To bridge this gap, the researchers
scrutinize both the preference of sexual abuse and its linked factors for sexual minorities in

M.A THESIS-LITERATURE REVIEW 12
colleges. The data for the study was obtained from the Online College Social Life Survey
(OCSLS), with the target sample being 21, 000 learners. Ford and Soto-Marquez (2016) reported
that one out of four gender minorities are sexually abused while in colleges, more so after
spending four years in their respective courses. The studies also reported that the most assaulted
victims include guy and bisexual men similar as the heterosexual women.
Ford and Soto-Marquez (2016) clarified that bisexual women are the most risky as
regards sexual assault in colleges, whereby two out of five of the same group reported to have
experienced this ordeal while staying in college for four years. Finally, the membership of
fraternities in colleges was reported to be the most vulnerable to sexual assault compared to the
general group of students in the same college. Other sexual assaulted survivors indicated to have
been engaged to some sort of hookup culture, the reason for their vulnerability. The findings
were essential for the university administrators and counseling centers in helping mitigate the
sexual assault experiences reported in respective colleges.
Utilization of and peer-reviewed sources for this study makes it credible and reliable for
research. Ford and Soto-Marquez (2016) utilized a friendly language, and an easily coherent one,
which makes reading easier. The methodology utilized, including surveys was critical in
showcasing the theme and justifying the study. Lastly, the sources utilized were current, would
be a testimony that the outcomes were relevant with what was happening on the ground during
the time of study. The information of investigation is relevant because it remains within the
subject studied currently.
Bergman, L. (1993). " In Love and in Danger: A Teen's Guide to Breaking Free of
Abusive Relationships". By Barrie Levy (Book Review). Affilia, 8(4), 458.
Bergman (1993) explores the abusive live schooling students’ face, which would

M.A THESIS-LITERATURE REVIEW 13
be linked with gender violence. It commences by arguing that students in tertiary
institutions who are in intimate relationships encounter abusive scenarios, where either a
boyfriend or a girlfriend experiences physical abuse, and are not aware of the protocols to
pursue to obtain justice and protection. The book emphasizes the essence of younger
adults to know the places they should report their plights in case they experience such
scenarios. The author investigated the rate at which teens encounter emotional and
physical abuses in their relationships, with the outcomes indicating that 96% had suffered
under either their boyfriends or girlfriends. Bergman (1993) generates this edition to guide
young adults to understand the negative impacts of abuse, and offers guidance on the
appropriate channels to pursue when faced with such calamities, while helping them
understand the consequences of such abuses. It for instance advices this group to seek help
from their parents and other adults, and request them to educate them how to go about with
such relationships. Bergman (1993) utilizes the book to explore the physical and emotional
abuses, and the remedies the youths should adhere to while seeking justice to their plights.
The source is credible because the authors employed current sources, most of
which were peer-reviewed. The articles also demonstrated the credibility aspect, due to
ideal methodologies utilized, which can be reliable in obtaining the anticipated results.
One weakness though is that the writers utilized a non-coherent language, and lacked a
systematic organization of facts, which raises alarm regarding the credibility of the article.
Nonetheless, the article harbors critical information, which would be an ideal addition to
the current study.
Utilization of friendly language and credible sources makes the article relevant and
reliable for this study. The methodologies utilized and the analysis techniques were also

M.A THESIS-LITERATURE REVIEW 14
credible and verifiable for this study. The topic is relevant for it addresses the issue of
female violence, which is the main subject of the current information.
Hesse-Biber, S. N. (2014). Mixed methods research: merging theory with practice (Links
to an external site.). Guilford Publications
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sexual_Attitude_Reassessment
Hesse-Biber (2014) delineates the nature and procedures of conducing mixed
methods research. The article objective is to define the philosophy of applying the
qualitative design in the context of mixed methods research. It specifically highlights the
procedures and protocols employed and the significance of these approaches when
engaging in studies. The article is a review of a book comprising eight chapters, and
commences with the outline of relevant theories with the consequent chapters exploring
the strands of research alongside authentic case studies. The first chapter commences by
defining the mixed methods research concept, and further explains the difference between
mixed research and multi-methods research, as they apply in either qualitative or
quantitative study.
Various issues relating to mixed research are covered in chapter three and four. In
chapter three, the author explains the implication of mixed approaches and how they align
with mixed study methodology. Hesse-Biber (2014) further argues that this application
utilizes effective software; mostly computer assisted ones such as the CAQDAS software.
The interpretive approaches are addressed in the fourth chapter, whereby the author
clarifies how they link with qualitative designs; more do their focus on comprehending the
social phenomena. The fifth chapter covers the feminist aspects of studies as they relate
with mixed studies. It concludes by indicating practical examples, which appear in the

M.A THESIS-LITERATURE REVIEW 15
penultimate chapter, to enable the students and other researchers to understand the mixed
study effectively.
Jackson, H., Philip, E., Nuttall, R., & Diller, L. (2002). Traumatic brain injury: A hidden
consequence for battered women. Professional Psychology: Research and
Practice, 33, 39-45.
Jackson et al. (2002) explore how often battered women struggle with violent
relationships, and how difficult they find it to terminate them. The study is a development
of previous research whose outcome indicated that women find it difficult to leave violent
homes, and endure the battering, terming the scenario as of grave concern to various
medical experts, more so the clinical practitioners. Jackson et al. (2002) expounds that the
impact of professional intervention in salvaging this lot becomes futile as the domestic
violence victims prefer to return to their batterers, and decide on persevering the
challenging aligning this relationship. The clinical practitioners believe this trend violates
the laws governing the traditional psychological interventions rendering the approach as
ineffective. To traverse this phenomenon, Jackson et al. (2002) examined a sample of 53
women involved with domestic violence, and interrogated them.
The results indicated that 92% of these women had endured blows from their
batterers, while 40% of the total sample reported to have been conscious as a result of
beatings. The study also discovered significant correlations between the frequency of head
beatings and the cognitive signs and symptoms. The outcome demonstrated significance
for battered women to undergo screening to determine the possibility of brain injuries and
the possibility of conditions like the post-concussive syndrome developing. The study
concludes that the invention and development of treatment strategies that caters for the

M.A THESIS-LITERATURE REVIEW 16
damages arising from battering in female populations is essential.
The source is credible because it addresses the issue of male violence and prejudice
against women, thus making it vital in the current investigation. The author has utilized
credible sources, which are peer-reviewed, although some dated back to earlier times, an
indication that the information presented did not embody the reality of the matter of
investigation at the time the research was conducted. Nonetheless, the information utilized
is relevant since it addresses the critical issue of gender violence and prejudice, thus a
credible addition to the current sources.
Koss, M. P., Goodman, L. A., Browne, A., Fitzgerald, L. F., Keita, G. P., & Russo, N. F.
(1994). No safe haven: Male violence against women at home, at work, and in the
community. American Psychological Association.
Koss et al. (1994) studies the negative implications of male violence against
women. The authors argue that this act cause fear, anxiety, and injury in women across the
divide. They further clarify that the repercussions does not spare the social, ethical, and
economical status, and that it affects all women in equal measure. The prejudice of women
through domestic violence impacts the female gender, even those that are regarded as not
the direct targets. Koss et al. (1994) conducts extensive examination of this nightmare by
targeting to address or cover the physical abuses, sexual assault and any forms of sexual
harassments directed towards women in society. The study discovers that most women feel
that they are left with no choice but to endure violence in their homes, schools,
communities, and their workplaces. Koss et al. (1994) designate that research experts have
invested their energies in exploring the literature of the possibility of both physical and
psychological impacts impacted from each form of violence and while exploring the

M.A THESIS-LITERATURE REVIEW 17
prevention and treatment remedies that would restore these women to sound life. The
research generated numerous themes as highlighted by the authors.
The results establish that that male violence occurs among men and women in a
relationship, more so the intimacy one, and that the chances of male violence occurring are
higher than anticipated or expected in the society. Other findings indicate that the
responses of the employee colleagues, friends, and the law enforces seem to compound
rather than mitigate gender violence Koss et al. (1994) concludes that gender norms have
played a massive role in escalating male violence against females, since they render them
as inferior, thereby devaluating them in society.
The authors of the article have utilized credible sources, mostly peer-reviewed, the
reason they are credible for this current study. The methodologies utilized for the review
of variables are also relevant and capable to enable the researchers to obtain positive
results. The information is mostly relevant for this study for it addresses relevant
information, which is, to investigate gender violence, with intent to condemn it. It is
therefore, a valuable addition to the current study as one of the sources.
Smith-Kimble, C. (2020, March 30). Realities of Sexual Assault on Campus:
BestColleges. Retrieved from https://www.bestcolleges.com/resources/sexual-
assault-on-campus/
Smith-Kimble (2020) examines the intensities and avenues created in campuses that
generate abusive relationships. The article argues based on evidential research information,
which analyzes the relationships in colleges, and how they impact students. The study explored
indicates that more than 13% non-consensual sexual contact occurs in colleges and other tertiary
institutions across the globe. Smith-Kimble (2020) further clarifies that issues related to sexual

M.A THESIS-LITERATURE REVIEW 18
assault are underreported, with abusive relationships and violence domineering in those
institutions.
The results for the article indicate that several organizations exist which clarifies in
details about sexual violence while outlining the channels the students should explore whenever
they encounter such injustices. It concluded that it is the government’s desire to see that schools
solve sexual violence and related cases immediately they occur. The government also encourages
the victims of sexual violence and abuse to take legal action to sue the perpetrators if the schools
administrators fail to take appropriate action.
The study is mostly credible because it utilizes credible sources to showcase or analyze
the issue at hand. The methodologies applicable are also relevant, the reason it can be added as a
reference for the current study. One weakness was noted though, whereby some sources utilized
by the researchers were outdated and incredible. Nonetheless, those sources were few, and the
most current ones surpassed them, thus reputing this loophole.

M.A THESIS-LITERATURE REVIEW 19

References

Bergman, L. (1993). " In Love and in Danger: A Teen's Guide to Breaking Free of
Abusive Relationships". By Barrie Levy (Book Review). Affilia, 8(4), 458.
Hesse-Biber, S. N. (2014). Mixed methods research: merging theory with practice (Links
to an external site.). Guilford Publications
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sexual_Attitude_Reassessment
Jackson, H., Philip, E., Nuttall, R., & Diller, L. (2002). Traumatic brain injury: A hidden
consequence for battered women. Professional Psychology: Research and
Practice, 33, 39-45.
Koss, M. P., Goodman, L. A., Browne, A., Fitzgerald, L. F., Keita, G. P., & Russo, N. F.
(1994). No safe haven: Male violence against women at home, at work, and in the
community. American Psychological Association.
Smith-Kimble, C. (2020, March 30). Realities of Sexual Assault on Campus:
BestColleges. Retrieved from https://www.bestcolleges.com/resources/sexual-
assault-on-campus/
Conley, A. H., Overstreet, C. M., Hawn, S. E., Kendler, K. S., Dick, D. M., & Amstadter, A. B.
(2017). Prevalence and predictors of sexual assault among a college sample. Journal of
American college health, 65(1), 41-49.
Smith-Kimble, C. (2020, March 30). Realities of Sexual Assault on Campus: BestColleges.
Retrieved from https://www.bestcolleges.com/resources/sexual-assault-on-campus/
Coulter, R. W., & Rankin, S. R. (2020). College sexual assault and campus climate for sexual-
and gender-minority undergraduate students. Journal of interpersonal violence, 35(5-6),
1351-1366.

M.A THESIS-LITERATURE REVIEW 20
Ford, J., & Soto-Marquez, J. G. (2016). Sexual assault victimization among straight, gay/lesbian,
and bisexual college students. Violence and Gender, 3(2), 107-115.
Mellins, C. A., Walsh, K., Sarvet, A. L., Wall, M., Gilbert, L., Santelli, J. S., … & Bah, K.
(2017). Sexual assault incidents among college undergraduates: Prevalence and factors
associated with risk. PLoS one, 12(11), e0186471.Sample