Sample Research Paper on Business Performance Management

Q11. Performance Management
Directors, Graduate Trainees, Managers and Administrators require performance
appraisals. Recommend appropriate appraisal processes for two of these groups, using
models from those taught on the module to justify your choices. (35 marks: 850 words)
Human Resources in various organizations and corporate institutions employ the
performance appraisal systems to generate feedback review and estimate the effectiveness of
performance, and in evaluating the performance of employees. According to Idowu (2017),
appraisals are fundamental tools that provide an opportunity to pinpoint and compensate or
reward workforces as a way of making them feel valued by their organization. They are central
both to human resource management and performance management, and apply to all
stakeholders, including the directors, graduate trainees, managers, and administrators. They are
mostly utilized to monitor the performance of employees and their career progress. With the
appraisals, the employers are able to determine the potentials of their workforces, as well as their
weakness, thus creating room for improvement and introduction of better reward systems
(Idowu, 2017). The Human Resources department in any organization is aware that individual
performance influences the welfare of the teams or even the entire firm. Appraisal enables
employees to understand their roles and statuses, enhances motivation and self-development, and
enables the organization to determine the credibility of its recruitment policies and practices
together with their promotions, transfer and reward policies.
While the appraisals serve the same purpose, they vary across diverse careers, thus a need
for effective selection of the appraisal model that suits a particular course. Professionals in
various capacities such as the doctors, Graduate Trainees, Managers, and Administrators require
the performance appraisals, for they are essential in boosting the productivity and outcome

enhancement. Since the performance and productivity aspects are evaluated based on
predetermined set of objectives, the variation of the same accounts for the appraisal differences
for each career proposed. Inability to put the performance appraisal to good use by failing to
employ appropriate methodologies can cause a setback as regards internalization of the
performance outcomes by particular employees. The essay recommends the performance
appraisal models that suit two categories or groups of workers, which include the Directors, and
the Graduate Trainees.
For Directors to realize their objective, the appraisal model recommended for this
category is the Management by objective (MBO) evaluation. According to Islami et al. (2018),
the MBO appraisal approach is a framework that provides a platform that facilitates a mutual
communication between the managers and employees. Under the MBO scenario, the managers
and employees jointly identify, scheme, organize, and communicate objectives to focus on
during a particular assessment period. After setting goals, the two parties participate in
monitoring, discussing and debating on the credibility and feasibility of accomplishing them with
an objective to accomplish the company’s mission. According to Islami et al. (2018), matching
the overcharging organizational goals with objectives using the MBO appraisal approach entails
the use of SMART tool, which aids to determine whether they are specific, measurable,
achievable, realistic, and time sensitive. The results are used to judge all employees at the end of
the set period of appraisal. Any success noted is rewarded with promotions and pay increment,
while any failure leads to transfers or probation sanctions. Tangible goals are valued more in this
appraisal system, while intangible aspects such as commitment, interpersonal skills, and
expertise are not of essence. The system suits the directors because it is customarily rooted in the
organizational-wide goal setting and appraisal progression. Integrating the MBO into the

performance management process can benefit the directors most because it amplifies the chances
of goal achievement, enable employees focus their thoughts on the future success, and also
enhances employee commitment.
For the graduate trainees, the Assessment Center Method is the most ideal for their
appraisal needs. The concept came to limelight in 1930, courtesy of the Germany Army, and has
been improved to suit the modern career environment. According to Mohan, (2017), the
assessment center method enables the employees or the target niche determine how others regard
and observe them, and how does this pattern affect their overall performance while working in an
organization. It mostly suits the graduate trainees because it does not only assess the current
performance, but predicts the future performance of the assessed individuals. Such attribute
makes it the most ideal for specific categories of working class such as the graduate trainees, but
can be utilized to assess other employees such as managers as well.
The assessment center method undergoes three critical states, the reason it is mostly
effective. The initial stage is the pre-assessment, which entails activities such as undertaking
online objective review, looking out for competencies and reviewers, generation of simulation
exercises, and settling on an ideal rating approach. The next state is the real assessment, where
the target lot is asked to explain the purpose and policies, employ competency-exercise matrixes,
engage in discussions and exercise, and identify their strengths and as well as their weaknesses
(Mohan, 2017). The last phase is the post assessment, where an employee appraised endeavors to
collect the feedback from the reviewers, evaluate the authenticity of the outcomes, share the
feedback with fellow workers, and attain further training if necessary. The major advantage of
this method is that executing is costly and time consuming, the reason it is difficult to manage.
The methodology comprise numerous advantages, which include its ability to enhance the

participant’s knowledge, the possibility of tailoring it to suit diverse roles and perspectives, and
its capacity to offer insight of the employee personality.
Q12. Reward Management
Armstrong (2016) states that Reward must be: “fair and be seen to be fair”. Illustrate how
HR can construct fair reward for at least two staff levels from: unskilled, graduate trainee,
managerial, specialists or Directors (35 marks: 850 words)
An argument by Armstrong (2016) namely, a reward must be: “fair and be seen to be
fair” is accurate given that incentives invariably increase input, motivation, and effectiveness of
employees in organizations. In view of Armstrong’s sentiments, any violating the principle of
fairness when giving rewards and incentives would lead to a decline in motivation and
productivity. Studies reveal that if implemented and monitored effectively, incentive programs
offered by companies or organizations are able to increase performance at the rate of 22% (Khan
et al., 2020). Team incentives are more gainful because they enhance performance by 40%, the
same studies indicate. Organizations should endeavor to generate the motivation schemes, and
ensure that they are discharged to the employees in a fair manner, to accomplish their intended
purpose. Organizations are set up to include various categories of staff, which include the
unskilled, graduate trainees, managerial levels, and directors or specialists. Considering the
enumerated categories, organizations should consider balancing the incentives as a way of
ensuring that none of its employees feel biased or prejudiced in that line.
The HR department in various organizations can construct fair reward systems for
various staff levels. Nonetheless, the current study illustrates the ideal reward systems that can
suit the unskilled staff and the managerial staffs. Like other employees, unskilled employees
should also be offered incentives by the HR department as a way of motivating them to perform

their tasks diligently. According to Wang et al., (2018), incentives are ideal in motivating
employees to take certain actions with passion, with the ultimate objective of obtaining some
gains by an issuer. Incentives can be intrinsic or extrinsic. In most cases, the unskilled workers
do not benefit from intrinsic incentives since they engage in tasks not as a career, but with an
objective to generate income. For unskilled workforces, an HR department can construct an
incentive program that is either one-time or ongoing.
Monetary incentives can benefit the unskilled staff levels because they usually target to
generate income as the chief reason for working. An example of this kind of incentive is offering
spot bonuses or awards to them. These types of rewards are in the form of small prizes offered to
employees in response to an achievement realized. It is meant to give special recognition to
exceptionally performing workforces, more so those working on short-term basis. According to
Fahn et al., (2017), spot bonuses trigger direct response to positive employee behavior while
improving the motivation aspect. The HR department should also include the unskilled
employees when rewards the performance bonuses. They exist in form of commissions
percentages for making more sales, or by surpassing the set production targets. While these
bonuses are offered annually or quarterly, organizations should consider offering them on a
monthly or bi-monthly basis to factor in the unskilled employees, who usually operate in short
contracts. The incentive program rolled out by the HR department should also include the
unskilled when offering the non-monetary incentives such as the free vacations, improved
working tools (Fahn et al., 2017). Gift cards, and by allowing them to take part in company
picnics. Public recognition would motivate them even more and enable them feel valued by the
organization they are working in. The incentives can be massive in motivating this lot, and also
enhancing their input capacity, which is of benefit as regards increasing the productivity aspect.

The managerial levels should also be motivated by the HR department through incentives
as a way of encouraging them to enhance their input at their respective places of work.
According to Gilje et al., (2020), Managers play a crucial role in everyday running of an
organization, the reason most firms deliberate on rewarding them. The HR departments provide
long-term and short-term incentives to management, with 96% of these rewards offered in cash.
For instance, most managers performing exceptionally receive spot bonuses and project bonuses.
One scenario is whereby an organization decides to rewards a manager due to the exceptional
performance of its department, or other sectors they are in charge. HR departments also can
decide to increase their salaries as incentive to motivate them for their exceptional performance
as well. Studies highlight that some managers receive merit-based raises, and this is offered to
target employee retention (Gilje et al., 2020). Nonetheless, such awards are given when
employees or managers perform exceptionally when performance reviews take place or when
they attain set benchmarks. Unlike performance incentives which are given in lump sum amount,
merit-based incentives are long-term and are included in the salary, whereby it hikes. Other HR
department considers offering the Gain-sharing plan incentives, which mostly seek to reward
employees or managers whose production in one unit, say customer service, or content creation,
is exceptionally higher. The non-vacation incentives incorporated in rewards programs tailored
for managerial level includes free vacations extend vacation time, company picnics, public
recognition, entertainment tickets, and end-year parties.
In summary, both the unskilled and the managerial staff levels deserve to be included in
the incentive programs by the HR departments, since this effort enhances motivation and
production aspects. While unskilled employees receive massive incentives like other employees,
their reward benefits are minimal owing their lack of specialization and the nature of contracts

they commit to, which are usually shorter. The managerial however, benefits most by receiving
more incentives. Introducing incentives to all employees in the most ideal route to take since it
not only enhances motivation as well as increases the productivity aspect, thereby benefiting the
organization overall.

Ward administrator
Dear Sir/Madam,
I am applying for the abovementioned vacancy as advertised on social media on——–As an
extremely efficient and experienced officer administrator, I can bring an organized
knowledgeable and focused approach to the position.
I am a holder of Bachelor of Commence, with a vast experience in diverse portfolios related to
this career, which I attained in previous training and working institutions as indicated in my
Resume. I am an organized personality, who is ever dedicated to serve the public at all times.  I
am a skilled problem-solver with a keen attention to detail and valuable familiarity with hospital
operations. My strong interpersonal and computer skills understanding of medical terminology
and multi-tasking abilities also add to my strengths as a ward administrator. I am an avid
coordinator of development projects and programs, and able to facilitate and maintain the
infrastructure and facilities of public service at the county level. My affluent communication and
interaction skills make me stand out as the ideal candidate that would steer the facilitation and
coordination of citizen participation of development agendas, which is among your key
I am a flexible employee capable of initiating and propagating positive interaction among co-
workers and customers in a professional and efficient manner, a virtue that would uphold
collaboration and maximize the teamwork aspect. With these attributes, I am confident of
becoming a valuable asset in your organization of given chance. I have enclosed by CV and
other relevant academic documents to serve and testimonials.



Dear Sir/Madam:
I would like to apply for the vacancy of Human Resource Management and Development Officer
your organization has advertised in social media on…. A combination of factors including; a
variety of managerial and administrative titles held in the past, extensive customer service
experience and an innate sense of adapting to an independent or team oriented environment,
leads me to believe that I would be a prime candidate for the position being offered.
I commenced my career after graduating from the university with a degree in human resources
management, and have since been working for my current company. The positions that compose
my employment history and formal education have exposed me to many key facets of running
and working in a healthy, prospering business environment. In return it has made me
knowledgeable in areas, but not limited to, retention, hiring, performance management,
operations, employee relations, quality customer service and management. Prime examples of
titles held at The Lakewood Home Depot would validate the previous mentioned.
I am a meticulous servant, with a propensity to communicate with both my co-workers and
customers professionally, efficiently and with a boundless team oriented attitude. Thus, I will
prove to be an asset to your organization. I can guarantee that my work experience will help me
achieve all goals expected of me.
I have enclosed my CV, which details my skills and experiences and relevant qualifications.
Should you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact me and I will happily respond.
Yours Sincerely


Fahn, M., Schade, A., & Schüßler, K. (2017). What drives reciprocal behavior? the optimal
provision of incentives over the course of careers.

Gilje, E. P., Gormley, T. A., & Levit, D. (2020). Who's paying attention? Measuring common
ownership and its impact on managerial incentives. Journal of Financial
Economics, 137(1), 152-178.
Idowu, A. (2017). Effectiveness of performance appraisal system and its effect on employee
motivation. Nile Journal of Business and Economics, 3(5), 15-39.
Islami, X., Mulolli, E., & Mustafa, N. (2018). Using Management by Objectives as a
performance appraisal tool for employee satisfaction. Future Business Journal, 4(1), 94-
Khan, M., Daniyal, M., & Ashraf, M. Z. (2020). The Relationship Between Monetary Incentives
and Job Performance: Mediating Role of Employee Loyalty. Educational Research
(IJMCER), 2(6), 12-21.
Mohan, J. B. (2017). A Study on Performance Appraisal Methods Followed by Automobile
Wang, L., Zhao, J. Z., & Zhou, K. Z. (2018). How do incentives motivate absorptive capacity
development? The mediating role of employee learning and relational
contingencies. Journal of Business Research, 85, 226-237.