Sample Research Paper on Mood in Atsumori in Noh drama

One story that became famous in Noh drama is Atsumori because it recounts the life of a
flute player and young worrier who was killed while in a battle between Genji and Heiki during
the 12 th century (Campbell 133). Rensho, the priest who was formerly known as the Kamagae
wander and warrior, sought peace and forgiveness before his death. Rensho killed Atsumori
because he believed that he was a merciful soldier that would have been tortured by the young
ones. After doing so, he went back to the battle site to say a word of prayer to him before he was
buried. While at the village, Rensho came across the grasscutters and he became spiritually and
emotionally moved by the music released from the flutes (Campbell 134). Due to this, Rensho
confronted the Atsumori ghost under the chorus music's guidance to relive the spirit from his
final death and battle to find enlightenment and peace with him.

Similar to Noh plays, one element used in Atsumori is mood. For instance, the
mysterious yugen created by Zeami from the poetic songs was done to reveal the truths of
enlightenment, Buddhism, and balance. While the song was traditionally played, Zeami also used
the choreographed and slow movement to the orchestra music, similar to how it was used in the
past (Campbell 137). As known, most traditions appearing in Noh dramas had choruses that
presented and featured the characters and onstage in the choir before they sat down again. The

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three characters in this play include the central figure (shite), who is more like the protagonist,
and waki, the supporting individual who helped him pursue enlightenment (Campbell 139). The
clown (kygoen) is seen assisting in the exposition that interludes between the two characters.

The mood character is also seen in the second and first acts when the interlude takes
place. For instance, when the villagers were passing by, they responded to the questions raised
by Rensho relating to the backstory in the play. In the intermission, the audience also understood
the climactic play-act of kyu (Campbell 141). A good example was when Rensho was singing
the waiting song; he showed how much he wanted to do the holy rites to south Atsumori's soul
before the ghost from the boy entered him again to garb the warrior spirit.

Even though Atsumori had rehearsed his passion for death, his obsession would not allow
him to gain enlightenment and transcendence traits. The song's chorus also acted upon the
extension of Atsumori's mind to help him recite his thoughts because the frenzy forces that made
him dance were also to relieve him from his last battle (Campbell 142). When the dance reached
the climax, Atsumori raised his sword against Rensho. However, Rensho was not the enemy but
the Buddhist priest who was to initiate the ceremony.


Atsumori is a story of the life of a flute player and young worrier who was killed while in
a battle between Genji and Heiki during the 12 th century. The author used various cultural
elements to narrate the story. One example that the author used was mood throughout the story,
especially during the death of Rensho. This element was also in the intermission to make the
audience understand the climactic play-act of kyu.

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Works Cited

Campbell, P. A. "Atsumori by Zeami Motokiyo." How to Teach a Play, 2020, pp. 133-147,