Sample Research Paper on Evidence-Based Practice Project-Intervention Presentation on Diabetes

Cancer is the abnormal growth of cells. It has more than 100 different types affecting
specific organs each. Cancer causes abnormal multiplication of cells in the organs affected
leading to the growth of tumors. However, the cancer of the blood does not lead to the growth of
tumors. There are two types of cancer tumors, malignant and benign. Malignant tumors are the
most dangerous causing interference of the body systems and the hormones function. Metastasis
is the spread of cancer tumors to other unaffected parts. There are various measures to the
control of cancer. These include conventional treatment methods, naturopathic medicine,
surgery, radiation chemotherapy and complementary methods such as nutrition (Arap, W.,
Pasqualini, R., & Ruoslahti, 1998).
However, there are various approaches to cancer treatment and care. An individual
approach is the best approach for the cancer care. The individual affected with the cancer takes
up the responsibility of finding the right treatment and the most advanced technology for the
management of cancer. The approach involves the individual finding the right broad-spectrum
cancer treatments from the medical facilities available. The medical practitioners in this case
collaborate with the individual to develop an updated and comprehensive cancer care to meet all
the needs of the individual. The approach allows the individual to develop confidence in the
cancer care methods and the medical practitioners and offer the best methods for quick recovery.
These methods include radiation therapies, chemotherapy and surgery treatments. However, the
methods and therapies depend on the type of cancer the patient is suffering from.
The full complement approach in cancer care offers a variety of scientifically proven
complementally therapies to cancer management to the patients. The methods include nutrition
where patients get advice on the specific foods to eat to prevent the growth of cancer tumors and

improve their immune systems. For instance, cereals and vegetables act as antioxidants and
photochemical in the body preventing growth, activation and multiplication of cancer cells.
Others include naturopathic methods where medical practitioners advise on the use of traditional
medicines, food supplements and plant based substance to control growth and spread of cancer
cells. The methods complement the other conventional cancer control methods. However, other
methods help a cancer patient cope with the side effects and complications of cancer. The
methods include offering of spiritual support to the cancer patients, counseling and psychological

Diagnosis and staging of cancer

Diagnosis of cancer on the patients depends with the type of the cancer, the symptoms
and the screening results as well as the physical examination by a medical practitioner.
Identification of growth of cells in different organs in the body often requires confirmation to
ascertain the cancer. Staging is the method that describes the extent and status of the cancer in
the body. There are various methods for cancer diagnosis that include,

Cancer screening

The initial method helps in determining the possibility of a cancer before the actual onset
of the symptoms. However, medical practitioners do not fully rely on the screening test results to
confirm cancer cases but instead carry out advanced confirmation tests. Screening tests are
crucial for early detection and control of cancer development in an individual. However, some
screening tests cause stress and other psychological effects to individuals especially on the
events of false positive results. Screening by medical practitioner helps them identify individuals
with high risk of getting the disease due to their gender, family history, genetic make-up and

even their lifestyle. Papanicolaou (Pap test) and mammography tests helps in identification of
breast cancer among the women. Prostate specific antigen test identifies prostate cancer in men.
Due to the cases of false positive in the test, prostate biopsy as an invasive test confirms the
cases. Colon cancer screening involves microscopic examination of stool for blood occlusion.
However, the method alone cannot be reliable in confirmation of the colon cancer. Advanced
methods for confirmation include computerized tomography (CT scan), sigmoidoscopy and


The method involves surgical removal and examination of a tissue sample from the
affected organ. An advance electron microscope helps in identification of cancer cells through
observation of their multiplication in the organ. Medical practitioners perform the biopsy test is
in-patient or outpatient depending on the location of the tumor. Doctors normally use needle
aspiration biopsy in cases of fluid-filled tumors. The method uses a thin needle that draws fluid
from the tumor for examination through a microscope (Miller, A. B., Hoogstraten, B.,
Staquet, M., & Winkler, 1981).

Blood tests

Detection of tumors releasing tumor markers is only possible in the blood. Doctors
perform prostate specific antigen (PSA) test on the blood to determine prostate cancer.
Recognition of the cancer depends on the identification of higher than normal PSA levels in the
blood.CA-125 method performed on blood confirms ovarian cancer. However, these methods
require additional advanced methods for cancer confirmation.


Diagnostic imaging

The methods produce internal presentations of body organs for identification of abnormal
growth of cells. Magnetic resonance imaging uses magnetic fields in creation of pictures of the
internal structures of body organs. The detailed computer imaging requires lying down of
patients for quality images. Ultrasound is a method that uses high frequency sound waves in
confirmation of cases of lumps in the body. X-rays provide images of internal structures though
not very reliable in cancer confirmation. Computerized axial tomography makes use of
radiographic beams in creation of more X-ray modified images (Creasman, W. T, 1995).


The method uses a flexible plastic tube that is fitted with a minute camera. The
physicians insert the tube in the suspected organs to confirm the growth of cancer cells. There
are various tubes designed for detection of various specific types of cancer. The most common is
the identification of the colon cancer by use of a colonoscopy. (Miller, A. B., Hoogstraten, B.,
Staquet, M., & Winkler, 1981).

Staging of cancer

Staging describes the extent of the cancer, its growth and spread in the body. Staging
helps the physician in identification of the right treatment for the patient. When the cancer has
not spread to other areas, it is easy to control as methods such as radiotherapy and surgery are
applicable. However, in cases where it has spread, advanced systemic treatments are applicable.
Such treatments include hormone therapy, drugs and chemotherapy to treat the whole body. The
systems of staging include cases where doctors have own languages in classification of cancer

and comparison of results with research studies. In addition, standardization of various treatment
methods in various centres is common.
The systems of staging are the ‘TNM’ and the number system. ’TNM’ system (The
Tumor Node Metastasis) describes the extent of cancer spread to the lymph nodes and other parts
of the body. In addition, it describes the size of the cancer cells. T-refers to the size of cancer
cells, N-represents spread to the lymph nodes and M –represents spread to other body parts. The
number system uses a scale of 1-4 in description of the extent of cancer spread to the lymph
nodes and other parts of the body. (Creasman, W. T.,1995) The higher the number in the system,
the greater the spread and vice versa.

Complications of cancer

The complications depend on the health of the individual and the stage of the cancer. They are,


It involves spread of the cancerous cells to the lymph nodes and other parts of the body. It
leads to the spread of cancer to other organs of the body such as the brain, liver, lungs and the
bones. Metastasis causes most of the cancer deaths. Treatment of metastasis is difficult and
chances of survival are minimal (Hanahan, D., & Weinberg, 2000).
Mental and emotional complications

Cancer patients often develop stress- related complications and depression. They are
always in grief and sorrow after the diagnosis with cancer even before recommendation of the
right treatment. Mood disorders in the cancer patients negatively affect their responses to

treatments and eventual death even before recovery. Some of them lose hope and commit suicide
before initiation of treatment.

Physical complications

Spread of cancer cells to other tissues in the body results to exertion of pressure and
eventual pain. The medical practitioner must first identify the cause of pain in a patient before
recommending the right medication.

Side effects of cancer treatments

The side effects depend on the methods of treatment. They include fatigue, diabetes,
dental problems, and sexual dysfunction among many others. Chemotherapy affects the enamel
causing dental problems. Some of the cancer treatment drugs contain steroids increasing blood
glucose in the patients’ blood, thereby subjecting them to diabetes. Chemotherapy and
radiotherapy can result to infertility. Learning and memory is often low in cancer patients.
Radiation or the surgery of the lymph nodes can result to lymphedema. Besides, they can also
result to neuropathy due to damage of the hands and feet nerves. Certain drugs and
chemotherapy can result to cases of organ failure such as the heart or kidneys.
The methods to lessen physical and psychological effects

Psychotherapy is the best method in the control of psychological effects. Use of group
therapies and antidepressant drugs is crucial in reduction of cases of anxiety among the cancer
patients and management of depression. People should give medical and moral support to the
cancer patients for them to lead a normal life.



Arap, W., Pasqualini, R., & Ruoslahti, E. (1998). Cancer Treatment by Targeted Drug Delivery
to Tumor Vasculature in a Mouse Model. Science. doi:10.1126/science.279.5349.377
Creasman, W. T. (1995). New Gynecologic Cancer Staging. Gynecologic Oncology.
Hanahan, D., & Weinberg, R. A. (2000). The hallmarks of cancer.
Miller, A. B., Hoogstraten, B., Staquet, M., & Winkler, A. (1981). Reporting results of cancer
treatment. Cancer. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(19810101)47:13.0.CO;2-6