Sample Research Paper on Hurricane Preparedness in the United States

introduction

Over the years, a number of countries have experienced various calamities that are in most cases associated to natural occurrences. Among these calamities are those resulting environmental and climatic factors such as, earthquakes, hurricanes amongst other environmentally influenced happenings. In the light of this, numerous measures have often been initiated in order to curb  Among the common consequences related to these experiences include, massive loss of lives, mass property destruction and distressful conditions. However, owing to the nature of these calamities, constraints have been witnessed in the adoption of reinforcement measures owing to the changing aspects of the environments.

Although there exists no single hard definition of a hurricane, several scholars have defined the term hurricane as a natural disaster that interferes with people’s daily activities. Most of the lives along the oceans are majorly affected by the sudden outbreak of such a national disaster.  Hurricane storm is not easy to tame but its effects can be mitigated to lesser harm than before. When the hurricane emergency occured, humanitarian agencies are called upon to give relief services to the victims. When the said aids are not provided in time, several life can be lost from the tragedy as well as loss of huge mass of property that can cause an economic crisis. Research is being conducted by many professional in different parts of the world on the measures to be put in place that can lead to the reduction of frequency of hurricane storms along the shorelines of united state. Scientists have learned the trend of hurricane occurrences over time especially in hurricane prone areas and have tabled down some of the indicators that alert people for the immediate outbreak of hurricane events. Early detection of these indicators is very useful as it help to serve life as well as reducing the magnitude of the emergency.

                                                Background of the study

Coastal lines of united state have experienced several hurricane storms over time which could be attributed to the nature of the wind that blows over the oceans. The effects of this wind are very pronounced especially when it reaches offshore where there is huge site of sand dunes. Others factors that facilitate that initiate the outbreak of hurricanes along the shorelines are heavy downpours of rainfall, earthquakes, and oceans tides and waves. Tourists and other visitors who often spend their leisure time along the beaches are therefore trained aware about the calendar dates when they are to expect the next outbreak of hurricane. Irregular occurrences of hurricane have in the recent past made it impossible to predict the date of the next episode. This challenge have pose a great threat especially to the homeland d security to the island residents around the coastal line. Today, the rapidly growing populations of people residing along the shoreline are resettled in other safe places with minimal outbreak of hurricane.

Hurricane preparedness is very interesting topics of study which have come at the right time when the effects of hurricane storm have exceed the threshold limit to majority of the population. Government of united state allocates millions US Dollars annually from their budget in order to mitigate the effects of hurricane to their population. This has not bared any fruits since the number of people who losses their life as a result of hurricane storm increases every year. Hurricane preparedness is an important intervention programs that aims at creating awareness on the onset of the next episode of hurricane. The project also aims at imparting relevant knowledge on the general population on how to identify indicator of hurricane storm. This will help them to be on toes in case of any outbreak amongst them. Indicators are also said to make people alert for unknown epidemics. Migration of people away from the hurricane prone areas is one of key steps when getting ready for the next occurrence of hurricane storm. This is very essential in mitigating the impacts of hurricane storm to the at-risk population.

Several researches have been conducted on how to rescue the vulnerable groups during the outbreak of emergency especially in hurricane disaster. These research works have terribly been challenged to meet their desired objectives since they are majorly concentrating on reducing the final impacts of the disaster rather than preventing it from occurring at the initial stages. Hurricane preparedness project has a vision of ensuring that every life is safe at the onset of the disaster. Awareness campaign is the key to prevent and reduce damages caused by the any natural disaster since most of them are above the control of human being.

By the end of this project, we are optimistic that the effects of hurricane storm along the shoreline would be reduced by 15 % from the current percentage of 35%. This is will be achieved due to the fact that awareness creation will enable people to flee away from the next episode looming to take place. Vulnerable groups will also be rescued from the hurricane prone areas during the first phase of humanitarian assistance. The most group at risk that will be assisted in the project include children under age of five, elderly, pregnant and lactating mothers.

                                        Literature review

Hurricane storm is an unusual event that suddenly occurs in a given geographical location. It adversely interrupts the normal activities of people within the locality. Good percentage of hurricane storm that has been erupting along the shoreline of united state has had magnitude effects especially on the human life. Majority of the population have lost their life from and some have remained with fatal injuries of their lifetime. In quite cases, hurricane storms suddenly occurs at the time when the community would least expect it in their midst. Mass destruction of property has also been evident in most hurricane episode. This huge destruction of property has influence the economic performance of such areas that are prone to hurricane.  Several humanitarian agencies have occasionally intervened to provide humanitarian support to during the emergency outbreak.  Such humanitarian support includes provision of clothing, shelters, foods, and health services. This has helped to mitigate the impacts of hurricane storm especially onto the vulnerable groups

 METHODOLOGIES

In the determination of the various measures that should be taken into consideration by various levels of governments in strive to curb the dire consequences hurricanes; a number of methodologies will be adopted. These methods will be tailored towards the realization of the best strategies that could be embraced to different levels. In the course of the search for best practices, extensive research activities will be highly valued at a number of organization and public levels. Among the methods that will be embraced in these research activities include, data collection methods, data analysis and data presentation mechanisms.

Data collection

In this case, information will be gathered from a number of spheres in relation to the possible measures to be assumed. Involvement of persons in the identification of the prevention tactics to adopt will aid in ensuring critical analysis of the alternatives that will finally influence best adoptions. The process of information collection will entail the use of both qualitative and quantitative techniques.

Interviews: Individuals from various spheres will be subjected to interviews in order to ascertain their view regarding the extent of hurricanes and the measures that can be put in place. Interview procedures will assume a number of forms depending on the nature of feedback required and the physical location of the respondent. Direct administering of questions will be vital in these processes owing to the immediate feedback that the strategy allows. This will also allow for interactive platform hence enabling contentious issues to be explained. Secondly, the use of online presentation of questions also needs to be adopted in order to curb cases of high expenditures involved in the location of the respondents. After successfully carrying out the interviews, critical analysis of the feedback will be adopted in order to select the best option to be assumed.

Questionnaires: The method involves direct or indirect presentation of questions that demands relevant answers from the respondents. These questions presented will be structured in order to involve the targeted aspects of hurricanes that will be integrated in the overall plan. The use of open ended question will be highly preferred owing to the wide range of answers that it allows.

Site visits; Actual visits to the sites that have been faced with cases of hurricanes will play an instrumental role in influencing certain desired courses of actions. Through analysis of the extent of the calamities and the facets existing within the sites, the best strategies to be ensured will easily be determined. However, site visits will enable the use of persons will relevant expertise in order to assist in the analysis of the various existing facets. Through this, cases of possible constraints in the adoptions will easily be curbed.

Sampling: General sampling of different pertinent information from the targeted population will assist in coming up with the overall conclusion on the best preparation mechanisms to be put in place.

Data analysis: After collection of the relevant information from various sources, an array of measures was adopted in order to ascertain the validity of the information besides examination of the proposed alternatives.

Expert analysis The use of experts from various domains became very integral in the operations. Through proper guidance and insights, these skilled personnel allowed for successful undertaking of studies that led to appropriate and relevant results.

Environmental analysis: With close reference to the data collected from the site visits. Extensive scanning of the environment was undertaken. This involved taking into consideration a number environmental factor that contributes to the occurrence of these calamities. Through the guidance of various experts, the process of environmental became key in the whole research process. Among the environmental factors that were recognized to be vital included human activities and the general geographical structure of the land. Through the analysis, it became pronounced that human activities greatly influence the occurrence of these calamities. Heavy human activities such as mining were presented to be major contributors to these calamities, hurricanes.  On the other hand, geographical features such as plains, rivers, rocks also had great impact in the occurrence of hurricanes.

  RESULTS

In accordance with the research conducted concerning hurricanes in the country, United States, a number of aspects became pronounced that can be used to initiate preparedness mechanisms. Initially, through the research, hurricanes have been presented to be fatal besides agents of mass destruction. As a result of these, certain mechanisms are pronounced to be vital in the attempts to curb future devastating results resulting from possible occurrences.

Among the prevention measures are those that can be assumed before the happening of the calamity and during the calamity.

Possible measures to be conducted before the calamities

Preparation of emergency kits: This will involve designing of plans that will help in the event of taking emergency actions. Communication plans should also be necessary to be conducted before the calamities, this involves creating awareness to the people on the possibilities of its occurrence, and it will be passed on from household to household and all over the states. This makes people aware and alert should the hurricanes come at any time. The government should also deploy agents to educate and give the necessary knowledge relevant to its citizens on the effects and dangers of the calamity, hence making them ready at all times. On the emergency kits also involves equipping all the rescue agents with the necessary equipment to be used during that time, also the government should give money and employ people who will sensitize other citizens on the calamity

Knowledge about your surrounding: it is necessary for the government and the people in all the states to have full information about their environment and all that surrounds them, to begin with they all should be aware of the human activities that take place around them this is because certain activities promote the occurrences of such calamities, for example mining, excessive farming, deforestation are some of the human activities that promote hurricanes, cutting down of trees from the surrounding may aggregate the calamity as it leads to the washing away of the top soil and also soil erosion hence exposing the soil making it more light this will lead to the occurrences of the strong winds due to exposed and bare land that isn’t held into contact by the trees, the government in collaboration with the citizens should have clear information on the factors and human activities that promote the occurrences of the hurricanes.

Evacuation route: the government should be ready and identify the means and measures to take in readiness for the calamity before  it occurs, in that connection the government should be committed in ensuring proper infrastructure i. e roads  and air transport that will enable easy evacuation, on the other hand communication systems should be put in place this will involve the government and other stakeholders to make the citizens aware on the occurrence of the calamity this should also involve other rescue bodies like the red cross to be ready, prepared and alert at all times, besides being equipped with the necessary rescue tools that should be used for that same purpose, all the agencies involved in evacuation should be equipped with the skills that are used during the calamity, therefore training is very important as it will equip the agencies involved in the rescue and evacuation mission with the technical know – how to carry out the activities during that day this reduces confusion hence order and preparedness

In the event of the storm: Monitor the radio and the TV on the weather updates; this is very important as it will keep you updated on the weather condition, whether the storm has reduced or increased, besides its important to see places that are safe and secure to be in at the time, this will enable households to be alert and focused alongside being informed hence reducing dangers Secondly the government should advise people to stay away from windows and outer doors, this is important because it will reduce their risks of being affected by the hurricane directly, as it may have health implications on an individual hence very  important, on the other hand the windows may break as a result of the strong winds hence causing harm to the people around, therefore staying away from the windows will be essential. Stay indoors and don’t go out. During the storm, it’s advisable for all households to stay indoors until everything settles down, people should be authorized not to go out but stay indoors unless otherwise, this is because it’s very safe inside the house than outside, if possible staying on a basement room is recommended, this will ensure safety of the people.

                                       Chapter 5: Discussion
  1. Does what you have produced satisfy the objectives you had at the outset?

The results elucidated in chapter iv of the research meets certain facets of the paper hence the need to adopt further discussion on these factors that can adopted by the federal and the local governments. Initially, through the stipulation of the actions that various agencies and individuals within the country. Among the objectives of the study were to initiate preparedness mechanisms that could help in curbing the devastating effects of hurricanes. Measures such as adoption of extensive and favorable emergency kits and proper communication channels will help the parties concerned with the calamity to effect curb the dire effects hence in agreement with the sole objective of the research.

  1. How is the original problem solved?

Specifically, through stipulations of the measures that individual and the governments can adopt before and in the course of the calamities, the problem of stressful conditions, loss of lives and destruction of properties will significantly be eliminated.

  1. What have I contributed?

Through the stipulation of the various steps that can be adopted in the case of future research activities, I have succeeded in providing effective guidelines regarding hurricane related research activities. In addition, the presentation of the results provides a benchmark for further research into the calamity and the subsequent measures that could be adopted to prevent the adverse consequences.

  1. Limitations of the project

A number of limitations were witnessed in the course of undertaking the project. Owing to the nature of the research activities, financial constraints became manifested in a number of instances. This can be attributed to the expensive machines that are desired for the determination of the extent and the magnitude of these calamities. Availability of the required number of experts also became a limiting factor in the process of carrying out the project.

  1. What might you do differently if you were to develop the project again?

In the event that the project was to be carried out again, I would emphasize on the need to carry out more expert analysis in the course of various procedures. This would allow for more certainty in the results adopted. The quality of the recommendations will also be improved as a result of the use of more experts in the project.

                              Strategies for hurricane preparedness

In the event of project-time extension, further research into the hurricane dynamics in needs to be carried out in order to allow for extensive knowledge. This will encourage proper measures that are tailored towards the realization of the most appropriate preparedness mechanisms.

In order to ensure preparedness at various levels, both national and local strategies are involved. These two levels of operational plans involve the use of different structures that performs within different geographical jurisdiction. National strategies are often formulated for the general public and influences courses of action within every location within the state. On the other hand, local strategies will only be applied to a specific area. Among the major elements that are often fought be these strategies in the country include hurricanes, droughts, diseases, terrorism, geologic hazards among other forms of calamities that could result in devastating effects.

The private sector has been very instrumental in the operational of the local governments. This has witnessed a number of private organizations get involved in various sensitization programs that are aimed towards curbing certain calamities within the society. Effective partnership that has been witnessed between the county governments and the private organization has seen a considerable reduction in disease calamities within certain regions in the country.  Texas region, for example, have greatly manifested effective partnership between the local governments and the private institutions. Non-governmental organizations are actively involved in these partnerships with the respective governments both at local and federal levels.

In most cases, the federal governments are involved in the strategies in order to finance the courses of actions that are normally costly for the local governments. In addition, the state often aids in the structuring of various regulations that influences the general courses of actions and the resulting preparedness structures formed. The department for state and local governments has often gotten involved in the design of the various policies adopted in line with different societal issues. In addition, central in the adoption of these assumed strategies are the various two legislative houses that control the regulations to be adhered to in the course of these strategies adoption.

A number of agencies are responsible for the provision of HS leadership within various states in the country. Initially, through the relevant board of trustees in every school district, proper leadership is offered by the institutions. In addition, both the county and the municipal governments play a pivotal role in ensuring adherence to a number of established regulations hence allowing for proper leadership structures.

 In addition, through a number of national platforms, the aspect of coordination has been made possible by various concerned agencies. Initially, through constantly organized workshops, the aspect of collaboration have been effectively been achieved among these entities. In addition, crisis meetings have also offered effective platforms for undertaking of relevant discussion among these agencies. For example, since the major terrorist attack in September 2011, the actions of a number of agencies have focused on a number of disciplines with a view to ensuring thorough and effective preparedness measures. The focus of the HS department at various levels is appropriate owing to the need to ensure collaboration among various agencies.

                                                    Conclusion

In summary, the discussion presents an array of pertinent factors in relation calamities, hurricanes, and the strategies that can be assumed by governments and individuals in order to curb the devastating effects of these calamities. Initially, it becomes evident that the need to carry out extensive analysis is of great essence so as to influence necessary reinforcement measures. The use of persons with the required skills in these processes will be vital towards the realization of most appropriate mechanisms. The paper elucidates both measures that can be put in place before and during the calamities. The development of emergency kits at various levels will help in curbing the magnitude of the effects. In addition to this, proper

7 and identification of exit routes will aid in preventing a number of deaths resulting from the occurrences.

                                                    Recommendations

The federal and the local governments should adopt close operational relationship with a number of concerned stakeholders in order to help in preventing these various types of hurricanes in the country. The use of personnel with the desired levels of expertise will help in the realization of the more effective preparedness strategies by the governments. Moreover, constant undertaking of sensitization measures for the public should be considered in order allows better understanding of safe measures. This can be done through the use of various platforms like social media, electronic media and the print media that will allow for the effective dissemination of relevant information to the public. Finally, constant review of the strategies assumed should be taken into consideration so as to allow for realization of the desired operational mechanisms.