The quality of education that individuals receive influences their performance in the current environment. Through education, one acquires relevant professional skills, knowledge, and competencies to perform well. A detailed educational system at the elementary level enables students to pursue desirable careers through sustainable programs of higher education. Compared to uneducated individuals, educated persons have better opportunities with regard to obtaining suitable careers and leading satisfying lifestyles. In addition, they are less likely to experience poverty because of their high-level productivity. At this point, it is worth appreciating that besides enabling individuals to acquire employment, education equips them with a set of skills and instills in them a sense of responsibility. Indirectly, education strengthens relationships and interaction and allows individuals to understand and appreciate their historical contexts (Rugh, 2002). This knowledge is vital in triggering innovation and enhancing development at different levels. Thus, a sound education system benefits individuals, their families, communities, and economies of nation states. Indeed, the importance of education in the modern world cannot be overstated.
Governments of nation states assume the ethical responsibility of providing quality education to their populations. They develop suitable structures that enable them to achieve their goals and responsibilities in this respect. Universally, ministries of education play important roles and responsibilities in ensuring population access and benefit fully from the education system. The fundamental goal of their initiatives and efforts is to enhance the competitiveness of their populations in the global market (Rugh, 2002). Just like other countries, Saudi Arabia commits itself to providing its populace with desirable education. This enables its community to have motivated and skilled workforce, efficient markets, and stable governing bodies at different levels. Although its education ministry faces various challenges, it takes practical measures to ensure that the problems do not prevent it from attaining its fundamental goals and objectives. It is against this background that this paper provides an in depth review of Saudi Arabia’s Ministry of Education, the challenges that it struggles with, and the measures that it undertakes to address them in an effective manner.
Ministry of Education
Having been established in 1930, Saudi Arabia’s Ministry of Education is responsible for the administration as well as management of education in the Kingdom (Ramady, 2010). It pursues the government’s mandate with respect to securing quality education as well as training for all facets of the society. Its vision revolves around providing quality education in an effort to sustain excellence and creativity. Apparently, the vision is derived from its religious values and is consistent with the provisions of the national and international standards and regulations. By providing various opportunities for all its populace to pursue education, it develops their physical, mental, and intellectual potentials and skills. It attains this through effective planning and implementation of sound educational programs that are reflective of the needs of the market at both the local and international level.
Smith and Abouammoh (2013) indicate that during the development of suitable programs, the ministry ensures that their content and form is appropriate and benefits all learners. With respect to upgrading education, it undertakes research in an effort to identify international trends and expectations of the job market. By incorporating findings in its constant reviews, it provides learners with quality education. Further, this institution assumes the sole responsibility of conducting external and internal evaluation of learning. Likewise, this enables it to keep pace with the global transformations in the sector and develop the future abilities of its people. In collaboration with other stakeholders, the ministry implements various projects that are geared towards expansion and development of training and education.
This government institution engages in the development of educational curriculum to ensure that it meets desirable standards. Ideally, this document influences the quality of education that learners acquire. In order to ensure effectiveness, development puts in consideration important factors pertaining to culture and intellectual capacity. It focuses on instilling in the student base important moral and religious values that advocate for good citizenship. Using educational theories, it ensures that its provisions are in line with the global trends. In addition to encouraging tolerance, the curriculum enhances the communication skills of learners. These are essential for attaining important goals regarding enhancement of solidarity and cooperation amongst citizens. Tolerance is particularly important in securing the society and enhancing harmonic co existence. The desirable conditions are requisite for successful performance in the global environment.
Smith and Abouammoh (2013) ascertain that the ministry oversees e-learning operations in learning institutions. E-learning has proven to be effective in improving the performance of educators and learners. In collaboration with international consultancies, the Economic Development Board and educational experts, it undertakes constant review of the e-learning strategies in schools. In addition, it fosters communication between the parties involved in education and eliminates conflicts that compromise the learning process. Relative to this is improvement of technological infrastructure of learning institutions across the nation. The ministry upgrades the states of information and technology in learning institutions. In addition to enhancing communication, this initiative encourages knowledge sharing and allows learners to access a wealth of information through the internet. Ultimately, it improves their informative and cognitive abilities and paves way for creation of a knowledgeable society.
Saudi Arabia’s Ministry of Education is an important stakeholder in the process of formulation, implementation, and enforcement of viable education policies. In this respect, it acknowledges the importance of rules and regulations in providing quality education. Since it understands the educational trends and learner needs, it focuses on improving the quality of training. By setting relevant standards, it ensures that all stakeholders commit themselves to providing quality services at all times. In addition, policies guide performance and prevent occurrence of conflicts that have adverse effects on the functioning of the sector. Since they are objective, they ensure that all decisions that are made concerning education are sound and based on informed thought. In addition, the policies and rules ensure effective planning in the sector. This is vital in enhancing efficiency and ensuring effective delivery of essential services.
The institution also concerns itself with guiding educational institutions and wide ranging affiliated agencies through financial management. In this respect, it is worth noting that operations in the education sector require huge expenditures. These are directed to research activities as well as development projects. They aim at enhancing the quality of education and are critical in empowering learners as well as educators. By providing the needed guidance, the ministry of education prevents resource wastage and promotes a culture of accountability. Specifically, it makes sure that the available resources are used for meeting important goals and objectives.
The educational structure of the Kingdom is classified into primary, secondary, and tertiary phases. At all the levels, both private and public institutions offer quality education to learners. Usually, these are at different stages of development and have varied needs. At the primary level, students are taken through three cycles to acquire basic education. According to Ramady (2010), the third cycle of the primary education constitutes of the intermediate level. Secondary education helps them to start preparing for careers in different fields of specification. Besides offering degrees, institutions of higher education provide certificate and diploma courses in various fields. Accredited institutions liaise with the Ministry of Education and uphold relevant standards that seek to ensure that they provide quality education.
Generally, education in this Kingdom is compulsory to all children that have attained school going age. They are at liberty to attend either private or public institutions of learning. Learners with disabilities and those with severe retardation usually attend specialized institutions. In public schools, the government provides free educations to nationals and non-nationals. By providing free textbooks to all learners at the beginning of each academic year, the Ministry of Education ensures that all learning institutions comply with the provisions of the curriculum. Undoubtedly, the contributions that the ministry makes to providing quality education are immense. Through its operations, the government fulfills its mandate with regard to empowering its populace and enhancing its competitiveness in the global market. However, there are various challenges that compromise effective attainment of education goals and objectives.
Challenges of the Sector
Just like the rest of nation states from across the globe, Saudi Arabia’s Ministry of Education faces various problems that undermine its efforts to provide quality education to its diverse learners. Fundamentally, globalization trends present various challenges that have varied implications on development and expansion of the education sector in the region. In his research, Rugh (2002) posits that globalization demands require population to acquire new skills, education, and information in specific fields. These improve their competencies and enable them to undertake complex responsibilities accordingly. They are essential for applying innovation and sustaining performance as well as economic growth. Attainment of this status requires an education system that produces a very broad human capital base that changes and expands continuously. Thus, the capital base should be dynamic and adaptable to the needs of the ever-changing economy. One of the challenges that the sector struggles with pertains to the inability to provide lifelong learning that would enable it to meet the expectations of the contemporary society. It impacts in the workforce-limited skills that hinder attainment of optimal productivity.
In his research, Ramady (2010) indicates that the Saudi Arabian education system does not put in consideration the individual needs of each student. In the current educational settings, learners are drawn from diverse racial, economic, social, and cultural backgrounds. All these aspects influence their learning tendencies and skill acquisition capabilities. The education system of this Kingdom discourages interactive learning that is elemental for developing creative and critical thinking. The teachers instruct the entire class without considering the needs of weak students that might not be comfortable with the form of instruction. The unilateral approach to instruction also prevents teachers from benefiting from the process of learning. They place undue emphasis on delivering the course content and ignore knowledge generation. Although the country has made efforts to encourage employment of higher order-cognitive skills in the classroom context, these have been met by resistance from educators. Absence of relevant policies to guide instruction makes implementation of the desirable strategies difficult (Rugh, 2002). Moreover, the evaluation procedure often rewards students that are best knowledge recipients. Arguably, it does not promote creative and critical thinking skills, judgment competencies, and flexible thought practices that are fundamental for effective functioning in the current challenging environment.
The rigid nature of the educational system that Saudi Arabia assumes is disadvantageous. The system of education is akin to a pyramid, whose base comprises of compulsory education. In this traditional context, certain students find it difficult to climb the ladder to the topmost level. This implies that secondary and higher education addresses the needs of a select few. Saudi Arabia does not offer competitive options for students that fail to make it to the top of the educational pyramid (Smith & Abouammoh, 2013). Notably, those that do not satisfy the instructional needs of one level of education are compelled to quit education and join the workforce. At these particular levels, they lack sufficient skills that can enable them explore the employment opportunities fully. Moreover, although vocational training attempts to instill technical expertise in the students, it does not give them a chance to make individual choices. Put differently, the system of education forces students to pursue career paths that they are less interested in. This has negative implications on their performance in the professional sphere. Directly, it prevents them from maintaining high-level productivity in these environments. Indirectly, these inefficiencies affect economic production and sustainable development of the country adversely.
A survey undertaken by Ramady (2010) found that institutions of higher learning in Saudi Arabia do not allow reorientation of students to new programs in the course of the academic year. The decisions that students make at the beginning of their college education are upheld until the end of the course. Lack of flexibility makes it difficult for students to explore emergent options that are equally beneficial. The implications of the practice are particularly devastating when students make wrong career choices at the beginning of tertiary education. Students are not given a chance to change their career paths during the four years that they spend in these institutions. In addition, there are very limited opportunities for students to transfer from one institution of higher learning to another during the course of their education at this level. Furthermore, the system does not allow students pursuing vocational courses to benefit from university education. Inherent rigidity makes it difficult for the education sector to prepare students effectively. This undermines their ability to perform well in the modern environment. Besides being unable to meet the local demands, graduates do not qualify for competitive positions in the international settings. The national system of education limits their ability to acquire essential skills and expand their knowledge base after acquiring formal education and entering employment. This explains why a significant percentage of students prefer pursuing quality education abroad. It implies that the sector fails to provide for their most essential needs.
The demographic changes that Saudi Arabia is currently experiencing pose a host of challenges to its education sector. In their review, Smith and Abouammoh (2013) indicate that the country experiencing a youth bulge in its demographics. The rates of enrollment at all levels of education have equally increased. However, the country has not taken practical measures to expand facilities and improve effective learning. Most of its institutions of higher learning refrain from enrolling students in certain courses because of insufficient facilities. Primary and secondary institutions of learning grapple the problems of lack of sufficient staffs and overcrowding. Coupled with lack of incentives in the sector, the current state undermines the productivity of teachers and the quality of education. In addition, the expanding population requires various demands especially considering the fact that learners exhibit varied abilities. Saudi Arabia is currently overwhelmed by this challenge and has failed to provide for the complex needs of the students effectively. The current educational opportunities for the rising population are limited and the costs that are associated with providing quality education are immense.
The rising education costs have huge implications on the economic wellbeing of the country. Currently, statistical evidence indicates that Saudi Arabia allocates a significant twenty percent of its gross domestic product to education (Smith & Abouammoh, 2013). The expanding populations and increasing demands imply that it is likely to spend more resources to meet its objectives. The government currently struggles with sourcing for sufficient resources to meet the demands of the sector. Although involving the private sector has proven worthwhile, it has failed to eliminate the problem altogether. Students in institutions of higher learning are perhaps the most affected by this problem. Higher education is expensive and most of the students find it difficult to finance it. The current state compels the government to ask the private sector to participate actively in programs that provide finances for higher education. Nonetheless, a significant percentage of students fail to attain higher education due to lack of funds.
Saudi Arabia has taken limited steps to cater for the individual needs of adults and students that drop out of schools. As indicated earlier, the group that fails to join tertiary education does not have sufficient competences to contribute to economic growth through employment. Increasing incidences of school dropout undermine the objective of the Ministry of Education with respect to promoting inclusiveness in education. In this respect, the education sector has failed to prevent school dropout and address the problem in a sustainable manner.
The inability of the ministry to provide for the technological needs of the learning population is apparent. Rugh (2002) argues that the current technological environment requires students to have access to new media in order to benefit from the information that it presents. Through the internet, students have a chance to access a wealth of educational material. Generally, education eases learning by making it interactive and resourceful. Statistical evidence indicates that the country has only been able to provide sixty percent of its schools with essential technological tools. This shows that up to forty percent of its students do not access important information that education provides. This discrepancy also compromises the ability of the sector to implement educational programs that rely on technology. Ultimately, it prevents learning institutions from modernizing education and improving curricula to reflect the entire needs of the labor market.
Also worth mentioning are the challenges that female learners struggle with in their quest to access quality education. In this regard, it is worth acknowledging that globalization trends require all facets of the population to exhibit high-level performance at all levels. Rugh (2002) cites that there are certain cultural and religious beliefs, practices, and values that prevent female learners form exploring their intellectual potentials through quality education. Evidently, women are underrepresented in higher institutions of learning and high profile employment positions. This is attributed to education policies that discourage them from attaining competencies that can enable them attain gainful employment. The current education system prepares them for low paying employment positions. Directly, it prevents women with high intellectual competencies from acquiring the quality of education that they deserve. Thus, although the government takes measures to ensure inclusiveness in the sector, this limitation prevents it from attaining its goals and objectives in this respect.
Certainly, the fact that Saudi Arabia’s education sector faces immense challenges is indisputable. The problems have negative effects on its efforts to empower its human capital and enable them contribute positively to economic growth and sustenance. However, it has taken noticeable steps to address them and ensure that its populace reaps the most from the education system. Together with other important stakeholders, the ministry has been on the forefront with regard to equipping its population with sufficient skills and competencies. Although the situation are challenging, its efforts in addressing the problems are significant and go a long way in enhancing attainment of important goals and objectives.
The ministry is committed to improving the quality of the education by ensuring that the content meets the demands of the changing corporate environment. It acknowledges that excellence is vitally imperative in optimizing productivity. In this respect, it emphasizes on achieving and sustaining outcome-based education. Specifically, it has made significant steps to improve its curriculum. It reviews and modifies the curriculum to incorporate important content that is relevant in the changing environment. In addition to reassessing the content of the curriculum, it designs relevant policies that ensure its successful implementation. The developments have led to introduction of new courses such as computer studies and professional culture at the secondary stage of education (Ramady, 2010). These aim at preparing the students from this level to meet market demands. In addition, the ministry seeks to develop and improve learning strategies in an effort to cater for the needs of the entire population. It attains this by concentrating on the concept of self-learning and incorporating in the curriculum essential skills that allow for development of desirable behavior. This approach encourages students to assume the learning responsibility and ensure continued education.
In addition, the desirable skills that the education imparts in learners aim at enhancing their productivity in the professional sphere. The ministry has implemented various programs that strengthen the skills and capacities of the students. In collaboration with specific groups that concern themselves with designing and delivering quality educational products, the government eases access to relevant information. Seemingly, it puts particular emphasis on developing effective communication and technological skills. Furthermore, it nurtures the personal skills of the students in order to empower them to deal with the challenges that they face at an individual level. During curriculum development, it bases its decisions on comprehensive research evidence. Its higher education plays an important role in facilitating implementation of the programs (Ramady, 2010). It attains this by liaising with organizations and companies to train students and inform them about the relevant skills that are needed in the job market. Periodic and regular field visits expose students to practical job environments and prepare them to address characteristic challenges.
The ministry encourages learning institutions to establish and sustain international partnerships with other schools from across the globe in order to benefit from the experiences. In this respect, it works with learning institutions in Britain, Singapore, Germany, China, and France (Ramady, 2010). The joint programs expose the student to global learning environments and help them to understand trends and challenges. The respective programs focus on important aspects including academic research and education management. Relative information empowers the students to deal with emergent challenges in an effective manner. In addition, it improves their performance in the international settings and prepares them to meet the professional demands of the international environment.
In addition, the Ministry appreciates the recognition that institutions of learning play an integral role in enhancing quality education. For this reason, it makes efforts to ensure that they have sufficient abilities to undertake their responsibilities. Its National Commission for Academic Accreditation assumes the role of evaluating the credibility of learning institutions (Smith & Abouammoh, 2013). By requiring that they undertake regular self-reviews, the commission and institution ensure adherence to established standards at all times. Furthermore, quality control compels learning institutions to commit themselves to upholding required standards with regards to faculty, administration, programs, and students.
The problem of student repetition and dropping out of school is persistent and has huge implications on the economic costs of the sector. It prevents the ministry from meeting its goal of ensuring that the entire population accesses universal education. The government has taken immense steps to stop and reverse this trend. One of the most notable strategies pertains to undertaking comprehensive educational research to determine the causes and develop workable intervention measures. By increasing the educational and scientific efficiency of the instructors and promoting their loyalty to this profession, the ministry succeeds in improving their outcomes and addressing the problem of school dropout.
The ministry supports introduction of remedial education to address the needs of students who spend a significant percentage of school time out of school. Coupled with support systems such as guiding and counseling, Ramady (2010) ascertains that these approaches help in reducing incidences of school dropout. In addition, increasing the age limit for learners to attend school enables adult students to pursue education with ease. It gives slow learners a chance to complete schooling without any form of pressure. In this society, early marriage prevents female students from attending school and completing their studies accordingly. By allowing young women with children to pursue education, the ministry is succeeding in improving integration. Arguably, it cannot address this problem single handedly. To enhance sustainability, it collaborates with learning institutions as well as educators. Through meetings and educational sessions, they devise school dropout reduction strategies jointly.
Assessment and measurement of student performance is an area that experiences various problems. As indicated earlier, this has far-reaching impacts on the ability of the ministry to understand the performance indicators of its educational system. To address the underlying problem, the ministry is committed to providing its teachers with both practical and theoretical knowledge regarding assessment and measurement. The guides that the institution provides its teachers with direct them to take necessary actions. By providing learning institutions with tests for orientations, intelligence, and capacities, the institution enables teachers to categorize students according to their capacities. This eases teaching because teachers develop instruction methods that are best suited for the respective groups. Further, Ramady (2010) posits that the ministry places particular emphasis on regular administration of personal tests to students. Likewise, these aid in identification of student weaknesses as well as learning difficulties. Most importantly, the institution sets national tests for all learning institution at the end of each learning stage. This helps it to establish the level that is reached by the students and enforce suitable national standards.
The ministry has embarked on spreading personal computers to learning institutions regardless of the cost involved. Its goal in this respect is to achieve use of computers in both administrative and educational fields. This is based on the recognition that this technological tool is imperative and essential for teaching as well as information network (Rugh, 2002). Current reports show that it has already established centers of educational resources in some learning institutions. These deal with encouraging students to assume the responsibility of individual learning. Besides improving their innovative and research skills, this mode of learning equips them with important technological knowledge that enhances their performance in the modern environment.
In partnership with various stakeholders, the ministry is intensifying its efforts to develop and improve the capacities of its teachers. In this respect, Smith and Abouammoh (2013) indicate that it is reviewing the curriculum of teachers to incorporate vital information that ensures that they acquire quality training. Improving the quality of training enables instructors to identify the needs of the students and devise suitable ways to address them. Besides concentrating on improving the competencies of teachers, the programs seek to enhance the efficiency and output of the teacher trainers. In addition, students with special needs are an important facet of the learner population. To ensure that they access quality education, the ministry is making efforts to integrate their needs in public education. This encourages a sense of inclusion and improves their learning process (Ramady, 2010). Currently, there are disparities between the quality of education offered in special institutions and the one offered by public institutions to learners with special needs. Reconciling these differences ensures that all learners access quality education in all educational settings.
In addition, this institution has plans underway to develop and expand school premises in order to meet the needs of the expanding population. In this regard, it is committed to building new premises that would replace the rented buildings. Arguably, the rental premises do not have relevant facilities that meet the required educational standards. The projects are being undertaken by various stakeholders including the business community, nonprofit making organizations and investors. Expansion of the premises is done on the land that is owned by the respective institutions of learning. In order to reduce costs without compromising the quality of production, the government provides new plans for modern buildings. These are in line with the established environmental criteria and educational standards. Besides accommodating the needs of the rising population, they provide an environment that is supportive of learning.
Just like secondary and primary schools, institutions of higher education also face the challenge of absorbing the expanding student base. To address this concern, Ramady (2010) indicates that the ministry encourages the growth of private education. Non-governmental institutions of learning provide viable options to addressing the needs of the burgeoning learner population. The ministry assumes the sole responsibility of supervising operations in these institutions. The main objective in this regard is to ensure that the programs they offer are credible and consistent with the established standards. To support the activities of the private sector, the ministry accords their students financial assistance too. Essentially, this improves enrollment in private institutions and eases crowding in public institutions of higher learning.
The ministry has embarked on inaugurating new colleges in order to cater for the expanding population as well as educational demands. Smith and Abouammoh (2013) indicate that in the past for years, it has accredited a total of one hundred and fifty four colleges across the nation. These provide specialized training in scientific, engineering, and medical fields. In addition, the institution participates actively in restructuring colleges as well as educational programs in the respective colleges. This ensures that their standards are in line with the needs of the labor market as well as the expectations of international development. Coupled with increment of community college institutions, the ministry has improved admission rates of students in higher education.
Private institutions of learning play an important role in delivering education to the population. The government recognizes that since they are profit oriented, they may in some instances compromise the quality of education at the expense of economic gain. For this reason, it has put in place elaborate measures to monitor and assess their performance (Smith & Abouammoh, 2013). In addition to assessing their performance, the Ministry of Education provides them with vital information that enhances their survival and growth. This empowerment ensures that they provide quality services at all times. It exposes them to critical trends in the education sector and encourages them to assume best practices at all times. Regular assessment and the requirement for accreditation compel private institutions of learning to improve their performance and increase education efficiency.
As indicated earlier, students struggle with the problem of financing for education. Seemingly, the government is overwhelmed by the expanding population and thus it is unable to provide funding for the entire student base. The government has taken various practical steps to address this problem. To begin with, it provides deserving students with scholarships that allow them to pursue higher education at both the national and international level. Then, it involves the private sector in providing for the financial needs of education. Besides financing education, the private sector funds for projects and important educational programs. For instance, it caters for the costs of building schools and recreation facilities for students, oversees the adoption of extracurricular program activities in schools, and monitors the functioning and management of playgrounds and other recreational facilities. The efforts seek to increase private sector engagement in education by making them owners of the institutional assets (Rugh, 2002). In addition to increasing their level of responsibility, the practice fosters a culture of social corporate responsibility. The private sector caters for a percentage of expenses that the sector incurs too.
The student fraternity is an important stakeholder in educational development and growth. Notably, students are at the center stage of the current initiatives that are directed at improving their wellbeing. Ramady (2010) believes that their active participation in these processes is vitally imperative. The Ministry of Education recognizes this need and thus develops student services that allow for their active involvement in improving academic achievement. At the institutional level, it rewards students that exhibit exemplary performance. Further, it provides different forms of assistance to students that require support in order to improve academic performance. To help students in special institutions, the ministry caters for the costs of their meals. In addition, it ensures that all students access primary health care services in order to ensure that they are in perfect health to pursue learning. Moreover, it offers transport services for students who reside in places that are far from learning institutions. Most importantly, it provides guiding and counseling services to students during their first week at school. These services are also available for students who require them throughout the course of their study. In this respect, the services greatly benefit students with behavioral problems as well as those that suffer from different types of learning disabilities.
In order to ensure that the education sector remains resourceful and participates actively in knowledge generation, the ministry encourages scientific research and publication of information. Then, it takes practical measures to protect the intellectual rights of such publications. Moreover, it provides financial incentives for researchers at different levels. These encourage them to pursue research and publish findings for consumption by the education sector. In addition, the ministry encourages researchers as well as institutions of higher learning to obtain and safeguard patents for their research activities. The knowledge that the initiatives generate provide useful insights for use in the education sector. Relative to this, the institution makes efforts to attract and retain distinguished scholars, researchers, and professors especially in its institutions of higher learning (Smith & Abouammoh, 2013). These are highly skilled and understand the dynamics of different fields of specification. Retaining them enables students to benefit from their knowledge and competencies through education.
All nation states appreciate the importance of investing heavily in their education sectors. Sustainable education systems empower their populations to perform well, address varied challenges, and contribute positively to economic growth and development. Saudi Arabia’s Ministry of Education manages the operations in the sector. It commits itself to ensuring that the entire student base accesses and benefits from quality education. In pursuit of important goal and objectives, it faces varied challenges that undermine performance. These emanate from the expanding population, lack of sufficient financial resources to cater for the equally expanding needs, lack of infrastructure, technological inefficiencies, inability to address the individual needs of the students, and rigid educational programs amongst others. These compromise the quality of education and prevent the institutions from performing optimally.
As identified in the research, the Ministry of Education collaborates with international bodies to expose students to diverse environments. In addition, it liaises with the private sector to provide financial assistance to deserving students. With respect to improving the quality of education, the ministry evaluates the status of learning institutions and accredits their activities. In addition, it reviews educational programs and curricula at different levels to ensure that the content meets the complex demands of the labor market. Most importantly, it enhances the quality of teacher training programs in order to improve their capacities as well as output. Although these interventions have not addressed the problem fully, they contribute positively to reconciling inherent disparities and ensuring that the Arabian population accesses vital education services.
Ramady, M. (2010). The Saudi Arabian Economy: Policies, achievements and challenges. New York: Springer.
Rugh, W. (2002). Education in Saudi Arabia: Choices and constraints. Middle East Policy, 9 (2), 40-55.
Smith, L. & Abouammoh, A. (2013). Higher education in Saudi Arabia: Achievements, challenges and opportunities. New York: Springer.