Sample Coursework Paper on Public Administration

Question 1

The Scientific American reported the findings of the research undertaken by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, which aimed at finding a functional cure to the HIV. According to the research, 18 monkeys were infected with the SIV a similar version of the HIV and put on treatment using the ART for 90 days. According to the study, the ART pushed the virus levels to undetectable levels. Out of the 11 monkeys, the researchers gave mixtures of the antibody for a period of 23 weeks. Out of the 11, 3, developed reactions and were stopped from continuing with the therapy. Six of the remaining should signs of the SIV rebounding although their immune system controlled the virus. The remaining eight suppressed the virus to undetectable levels for up to the 23 months they received treatment. In the group that was controlled, the virus rebounded and the animals died. The study confirmed that using ARV suppressed the HIV virus even in humans to levels that cannot transmit to others.

The above-reported study in the American Scientific is an applied Research as it attempts to investigate and find a solution to a particular health problem in the society. It attempts to find a lasting solution to the cure of the HIV virus in addition to the effects of ARV on the virus in the body. Since the research attempts to gain an understanding of the treatment and suppression of the SIV in the monkeys, it is a qualitative research. Qualitative research aims at giving an explanation, reasons, insight into a given problem.

The choice does make sense since the immune system of the monkey is similar to that of a human being and the SIV too is similar to the HIV virus attacking the human body. Due to the above reason, the results are believable as the behaviors of the monkeys during the study are similar to the behavior of humans if infected by the HIV virus. The scientists used a hypothesis to arrive at the decision of using monkeys. Additionally, the researchers used both dependent and independent variables, which were, the monkey, the SIV virus, and the new drug, which is a combination of the ordinary ARV and an experimental antibody. The researchers never used a model because the experiment relied on dependent variables.


 Question 2

Impacts of the Food Stamp Program

  • Improved birth outcomes between the period of 1960’s and 1970’s
  • Improved birth weight
  • Neonatal mortality reduced for both whites and blacks
  • Improved health amongst mothers and newborns

By use of variation participant observer data collection, the chosen participants would get close and intimate with the people who are to live on the equivalent of food stamps for a period of six months. The chosen participants would get friendly and close with the defined group through informal interviews, direct observation, and analysis of their lifestyle, participation, and discussions on their response and view of the Food Stamp Program. The participants would directly take part in the practice with the chosen group and observe the consistency, change, discrepancies, hidden behaviors over the allocated timeframe with the aim of making consolidating information put together over the period on the people’ way of life in terms of their feeding pattern.

The study would be designed in such a way that the participants would allocate sufficient time each day to be with the people on the program to learn more about their eating habits. All through the time, data would be collected through observation, informal talks, and interviews and direct participation with the aim of developing a consistent opinion of the habits observed and analyzed. In order to standardize data collected, participants in the study would be advised on what o observe, what questions to ask, how and when to directly get involved with the participants, and the exact time frame to be with the participants. This is meant to develop and create consistency in the data collected (Taylor et al, 1). Additionally, the students involved in data collection would be advised on exactly what to observe, which questions to ask and to know the relevance of any recorded event to the research survey.

Descriptive Research Questions:

These questions aim to describe measured variables or quantify variables in question. For example, questions starting with “how much?”, “What percentage?”, “What proportion?”, “What are?” In this type of questions, interest lies on one variable or on one aspect or group although they can include several variables (Bryman, 13).

Normative Questions:

Entails what is good or allowed. They often imply philosophical research analysis focusing on “what ought to be”. Its aim concentrations on what is best in a given circumstance, for instance, a question asking “what the unemployment rate in the United States.” Normative questions aim at presenting a specific action or outcome (Bryman, 14).

Impact Research Questions: These are questions designed to look into a given influence or control of a concept (Bryman, 13).

  1. Was the Crackdown on speeders successful? Normative Research Question
  2. Since its inception, how many individuals have been served by the state’s job training program? Descriptive Research Question
  3. What teaching methods are most effective for adult students? Descriptive Research Question
  4. How effective are the current recycling efforts in our community compared to the nearby cities? Impact Research Question
  5. Have there been fewer complaints of sexual harassment after all managers went through a training course that emphasized prevention? Impact Research Question
  6. How many books were borrowed from the library last year? Descriptive Research Question
  7. Was there a change in reading levels after the “It’s fun to read” program was implemented? Impact Research Question
  8. Did the program reach its goal of enrolling 100 children in “It’s fun to read” in the first month? Impact Research Question
Question 4

Define and operationalize the term “who make a difference”

Within the concept of referring to people or individuals, the term connotes to shakers, movers, and individuals who have positively disrupted communities in which they live. These individuals have dedicated themselves wholeheartedly to give meaning to their actions and purpose within the community.  They are individuals who have consistently committed to continually make the lives of other community members better have invested their time and energy in worthy actions, and have passionately spread their knowledge to others. Additionally, the term “who make a difference” refers to the selfless act of uplifting others and use of power to bring positive changes to the lives of others within a given community. In order to operationalize the works of the individuals, measurable factors such as hours taken in helping the community, monies used by the individuals, time taken in undertaking projects, and measurements of the levels of stress or aggression of the individuals. Additionally, samples of the works undertaken by the individuals would also form a key concept of the operationalization.


Works Cited

“Experiment in Monkeys Raises Hopes of ‘Functional Cure….” .

Bryman, Alan. Social research methods. Oxford university press, 2015.

Taylor, Steven J., Robert Bogdan, and Marjorie DeVault. Introduction to qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource. John Wiley & Sons, 2015.