The tenets of this study are ingrained in the role of women in enhancing children’s healthfor stable societies. Vast studies have concluded that women play crucial roles in fostering language, social norms, and structures in society that play a fundamental role in shaping and developing the cognitive abilities of children that help in the realization of their health. The Soviet psychologist and pioneer of the social cultural psychology, Vygotsky, portends that interactions between childrenand the society; notably, women helps them shape and influence their cognitive processes and health development (Didion 29).
Particularly, this study will examine the role of women in enhancingchildren’s healthin society. Through their interaction with women, children’s diet is advanced and their social and psychological development boost. Exploring literature review, methodology, giving findings and discussion will constitute the scope of this study.
2.0 Literature Review
In the literature review section, the researcher will seek to analyze how the women at individual level have contributed in influencing the development of health status of children in order to ensure socially and culturally stable societies. As elucidated in Sapiro &Virginia 44, there are a variety of ways women engagement has contributed towards shaping the health condition of children. Notably, their contribution has exponentially enabled children to be brought up in healthy, socially, and psychologically stable societies.
Historically, women have played a significant role in enhancing the health status of children in the American history. Today, if a child had a blood transfusion, radiation therapy, or experienced a health natural birth, that child is probably a beneficiary of one among many health innovations brought forth by women in the medical institution (Hinkle 98). Over time, the medical institution an innovation ground for women in the American society.
During the Women’s History Month, Healthy Living, that honors women who have made great accomplishments and pioneered inventions in medical institution and helped in boost the health status of children. Women’s significant contribution in medicine dates back to the ancient time. Historians who have exhibited interest in gender in society and medicine have identified the scientific accomplishments women have brought forth in this field. The historical and sociological aspects of the impact of women’s contribution to medicine to society have played a vital role is sensitizing other women towards appropriate health care (Didion 69).
In Ancient Greece particularly, women were cited to contributing to proto-science in alchemy in the first and second centuries. During the middle age, convents educated women and released them to communities to provide health care services to children. As established by Hinkle 55 when universities emerged in the 11th century, women were excluded from admissions in most states in the United States. However, gradually, women were admitted to universities with Laura Bassi being the first woman to obtain a university chair in the field of medicine. Despite women experiencing exclusion by their male counterparts in the field of scientific discovery and child care during the 18th century, gender roles were greatly defined. This opportunity enabled more women to experience great advances in medicine and by the late 19th century, the rise of women colleges enabled women to have more educational opportunities and engage in scientific discoveries geared at improving the health condition of children in the in many countries across the globe.
It is worth noting that women have made major contributions in the field medicine that have had a significant impact in enhancing the health state of children. Today, half of American medical school graduates are women and have received continued credit for the vital contribution in society in maternal and child care. Marie Curie in 1903 became the first woman to receive a Nobel Prize for her distinguished work in conducting child radiation. In 1905, Rosalind Franklin whose geneticist contribution in X-ray photography resulted to the best images of the DNA strands that helped in the treatment of children (Sapiro &Virginia 71). Between 1901 and 2010, forty more women have since been awarded the Nobel Prize for their significant contributions towards advancing the health condition of children. Other key examples of women who had an impact in enhancing the children health include:
Clara Barton, who was a doctor by profession, founded the American Red Cross in 1881. Today, the institution stands unique in providing health care based services particularly to children in need of disaster relief (Banner 76). Barton has been credited for linking her medical profession with enhancing the health condition of the young ones in the US history.
Dr. Virginia Apgar
She developed a standardized system, Apgar score, used to evaluate the health status of newborn babies by checking their breathing system, their skin color, reflexes, and the pulse. Her contribution to medicine created a long-lasting impact on society during her time. Today, her effort in boosting the health state of children is undisputable. Notably, by using the system, the health status of children can be easily determined and necessary medical steps be embraced (Hinkle 62). Over the years her contribution as remained relevant in identifying and addressing the health issues affecting newborn babies.
Women in the medical industry have also been credited for joining in the community outreach services that are aimed at enhancing the health condition of children. As an Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN), women have been given an opportunity to integrate and contribute to towards enhancing the health state of children. The Association offers an array of outreach services that helps women medical practitioners to socialize with expectant mother in order to educate them on health lifestyle.
Many of these programs are established in conjunction with affected families, learning institutions, and societies. The outreach setting entails homes, learning institutions, day care facilities, worship centers, recreational centers, and community facilities. Further, AWHONN and other gender-based organizations have been credited for their immense success in promoting children health care services within communities through gender socialization approaches(Sapiro &Virginia 48). The program offers a women socializing platform of advising expectant and new mothers on healthy lifestyle and how to avoid risk behavior that may lead to malnutrition.
Public health nurses in this association work to identify actions necessary to improving the health conditions of children in societies. They ensure this by extending services of immunizations and screening to the communities. Women nurses are able to socialize freely with mothers and provide them with services at the community level that are otherwise not offered in the medical facilities. AWHONN alongside other society organizations have been credited for improving children health care status and for expanding infrastructure aimed at monitoring and managing children diseases.
As elucidated by Banner 60, these gender-based organizations have taken the lead in socializing women and children on how to lead healthy lifestyles by providing resources and taking care of women and children in conjunction with Women, Infant, and Children community programs. Particularly, they administer baby assessments, give vaccinations, and offer newborn screening services.
The health based organizations have also been cited to providing comprehensive care to the sick children within in their homes. They also organize events, for instance, health fairs with the agencies that serve children in need of health food. This program develops and facilitates the implementation of corporate children wellness programs, thus supporting the children health status(Didion 54).
Women nurses have also been cited to play a crucial role in providing health care services in the junior schools (Sapiro &Virginia 83). Their responsibilities include developing plans for responding to emergencies. The nurses play a significant role in socializing junior learners on disasters and communication networks to ensure safety. In addition, the women nurses ensure that screening services and referrals are availed in case of serious medical conditions.
2.1 Justification for Study.Though many studies have been done on the role of women in enhancing children’s health, few studies have specifically focused on the influence of women in boosting children’s health development. This study will therefore specifically single out how women have played a crucial role in fostering children’s health.
2.2 Aim andResearch Questions.In order conduct a research on the influence of women in children’s health development, the following research questions will guide the researcher:
- What role do womenplay in promoting children’s health development in society?
- Is there a relationship between women contribution to the medical field and children’s health?
- What is the relationship between the role of women in children’s health development and psychologically stable children?
3.1 Participants.The sample for the primary study would involve 430 respondents. Random sampling of the respondents will be done. Ingrained inBanner’s assertions, respondents in random sampling get equal opportunity to participate in the research. The researcher assumes that a sample size of 430women who have contributed towards enhancing the health of children will result in rich information crucial in unearthing the role on women in fostering children’s healthy.
3.2 Design. A research design is an arrangement of conditions necessary for data collection and analysis in a manner that endeavors to combine the relevance of the study purpose and economy of the procedure (Didion 57). This research study on the women’s role in influencing children’s healthy will embrace a descriptive design. A descriptive design is ingrained in interviews and questionnaires as means of collecting data. Specifically, this study on the women’s role in influencing children’s healthy will employboth the questionnaire and interviews as methods of data collection. Choice of descriptive design is appropriate evaluating the women’s role in influencing children’s health.
3.3 Data Analysis Plan. This study will use interviewsfor data collection. This is because the tool is effective in evoking the respondent’s perceptions and experiences.Interviews give respondents freedom to give their opinions and make suggestions (Banner 31).
The researcher will ensure that the research instruments are tested for validity before using them for data collection. To ensure the validity of the research tools, test-retest will be conducted. Peer review will enable the researcher conduct content validity.
Additionally,the researcher will ensure the reliability of the research instruments is attained. In order to attain reliable research innstruments, pilot study will be utilized.Cronbach coefficient will be computed to further ensure reliability.
This study will be ingrained on the hypothesis:
Ho: There is no relationship between the contribution women are making in the medical field and the children’s healthy (Null hypothesis).
H1: There is a relationship between the contribution women are making in the medical field and the children’s healthy (Alternative hypothesis).
3.4 Ethics. Morally, ethically and professionally, researchers are obligated to fully disclose all the pertinent information on the research they are conducting in order for respondents independently make informed choice on whether to participate in research study or not. Autonomous decision making involves agreeing or rejecting to participate in any research study without being coerced or forced by either the authorities or researcher. Implicitly, autonomy constitutes of a respondent’s ability to understand what they are being asked to do by the researcher, making a rational judgment about the effect of participating in the study, and making an informed a choice to participate freely without coercive influence (Hinkle 43).
Disclosure involves informing all the participants on pertinent issues related to the research study including its nature, potential benefits the participants may gain or the potential risks. Participants must also be made aware of the research methodology or procedure and most significantly, the purpose of the research. The disclosure document must fully describe to the participants how the data collected will be stored and secured with the view of maintaining the anonymity of the participants. It is also in the informed consent document that participants are informed of any arrangement for medical care in case they suffer from research-related emergency or injury. During data collection, the participants will be referred to using codes assigned to them at the start of the research. All identities of the participants will be protected and shall not be disclosed to any party according to the disclosure document stipulations.
4.0Findings and Discussion
In this section of analyzing study findings, the researcher anticipates that all expected respondents will participate and that 100% respondent’s response will be obtained for a researcher to get a justification to proceed to data analysis. After data analysis, it is expected that the alternative hypothesis will be true that there a significantrelationship between the contribution women are making in the medical field and the children’s health.
(i)What role do women play in promoting children’s health development in society?
The researcher sought to determine role of women in promoting children’s health development in society. In order to get insight of the objective; the researcher posed a statement to the respondents:
Do women play a role in influencing the children’s healthy?
Ingrained in study findings, it is anticipated that 60% of the respondents will strongly agree that women play a role in promoting children’s health development in society. There efforts ensuresocially and psychological stable children.
Women engagement in medical innovation activities such as the Association of Women’s Healthy, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses gives women an opportunity to integrate and contribute to children’s health development directly. This association offers an array of outreach services that helps medical practitioners to access children. Many of these programs are established in conjunction with affected families, learning institutions, and societies. The outreach setting entails homes, learning institutions, day care facilities, worship centers, recreational centers, and community facilities.
(ii) Is there a relationship between women contribution to the medical field and children’s health?
Based on the study findings, the researcher anticipates that the contribution women are making in the medical field has lasting effect on the health of children. Notably, there efforts will ensure that children are born and brought up in environments that facilitate cognitive growth. For instance,in the medical school faculties in the United States, enrollment of female students is anticipated to increase from 27% in 1997 to 42% in 2016. Additionally, it is projected that in public health service, females will constitute 20% of the total workforce in the public health sector; an effort to boost maternal knowledge on effective child care.
The researcher anticipates that by 2017, 19% of assistant professors in the medical schools will be women, 13% will be associate professors and 7% of the full professors able to conduct pediatric surgeries. Further, 14 of 125 deans’ of the medical school are projected to be women, while 12 women hold chairs of the medical department. A further statistics anticipates that 54% professors in obstetrics, gynecology, and child care will be women where 15% of them will be able to conduct children surgery.
(iii)What is the relationship between the role of women in children’s health development and psychologically stable children?
Based on the study findings, the researcher anticipates determining the extent to which women contribute to the development of psychologically stable children. Premised on vast statements, the anticipated findings are illustrated in the table:
Are women involved in children healthy development programs?
The researcher anticipates that majority of the respondents, 85%, will acknowledge that women work as volunteers because of their desire to boost the children’s health state. In addition, a further 80% of the respondents will acknowledge that women participate as volunteers in the community action groups that work towards enhancing the healthy state children.
Potential Outcome of the Study
The findings of this study willhelp in giving insight of the research topic;role of women in enhancing children’s health. The researcher projects that the findings of this study will help in contributing ideas to the existing knowledge on the role of women in enhancing children’s healthin society and be a further driving force in influencing women to engage in healthy initiatives to foster children health. Societies whose children are socially, culturally, and psychologically nourished are stable societies.
Banner, K. Women in the modernization of America: A brief history (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth. 2005. Print.
Didion, H. Blueprint for the Future: Framing the issues of women in science in a global context: Summary of a workshop. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. 2012. Print.
Hinkle, M. Successful women in Medicine: Corporate America’s contribution to science. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society. 2005. Print.
Sapiro, J &Virginia, R. Women in American Society: An Introduction to Women’s Studies (5th ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN: 9780767416399. 2013. Print.