Sample Psychology Paper on Organizational Behavior


Organizational behavior can be termed as the study of human behavior and relations
with the organizational policies. It potentially relates the interface of human conduct with the
operational strategies of the organization. In the simpler context, it can be defined as a
method to study which in attempt helps the organization in developing effective and efficient
business approach. In addition to this, the attributes of the organizational behavior are
considered very decisive from the management’s perspective as it facilitates the behavior
understanding feature within the organization. Moreover, it also helps in influencing and
motivating the employees for better execution of proposed strategies. Human behavior
comprises various external and internal forces, which needs to be directed centrally to
accomplish the set goals by making the optimum utilization of the available human energy.
In this perspective, the following essay is presented to discuss the various aspects of
organizational behavior. In order to make a better understanding of the projected topic, three
journal articles are also considered and crucially reviewed. The analysis of the articles in this
essay will potentially help in enhancing the visionary aspect of organizational behavior.
Moreover, some recommendations regarding organizational behavior for the management are
also proposed on the basis of the critical analysis of the journal articles.

Article Analysis

Article 1: The Study of Behavioral Ethics within Organizations

The aforementioned research study undertaken by Mitchell, Reynolds, and Trevino is
centrally oriented to the relations of ethical behavior of employees within the organization.
The scholarly attempts of these writers are considered as an endeavor to uncover all the
related aspects of ethical and unethical behavior. Along with this, a considerable discussion

of the significance and impact of the ethical decision-making process is also presented in the
literature. The foremost factor, which empowered the purpose of the study, is the
identification of the factors that influence the ethical decision making and organizational
behavior practices. The critical analysis of the literature presented that involvement of
numerous factors in relating the ethical organizational behavior is unlike narrative reviews of
behavioral moral principles (Mitchell, Reynolds & Treviño, 2017).
Furthermore, the study also presented a vital essence of ethical consideration from
organizational insights. The author’s perception towards the behavioral ethics justified the
research purpose. The orientation of the following research acted as a premium to uncover
the causes, impact, and consequences of the unethical organizational behavior. Along with
this, an imperative prominence over the understanding of employee's behavioral ethics is also
important, as it helps the organization in meeting the demand-supply relation with the
employees. The appalling experiences of ethical violations faced by the society and
organization leave a grave impact for long (Mitchell, Reynolds & Treviño, 2017).
Moreover, the credibility of the research study can be justified by the fact that the
authors laid a critical emphasis over the attributes of the ethical decision-making process and
the various factors manipulating the behavioral ethics within the organization. The prime
concern of the author has delimited the theoretical concepts of organizational ethics, which
turned out as a loophole because realities of working within an organization demand research
examination of the workplaces. Failure and success of ethical organizational behavior highly
depend on the work culture, motivation and belongingness of the organization. The
theoretical consideration of role identification, employee motivation, work situation and
employee retention are inefficient to rationalize the experimental settings (Mitchell, Reynolds
& Treviño, 2017).

Overall, it can be inferred that the subsequent literature is an imperative and
informative piece of research. Author has potentially tried to meet the purpose of the research
and also justified the central idea of the study. The mere explored ambiguity is the
incorporation of theoretical concepts only. Experimental instincts on the research topic were
parted and a strong emphasis was laid over the research narrative and literature reviews.
Article 2: Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes
The following research study entitled as “Organizational Behavior and Human
Decision Processes” is published by Fast, Sivanathan, Mayer, et al. considering the
characteristics of organizational behavior and human decision making as a central idea of the
research. According to the author, overconfident decision- making is a consequence of
experiencing power. Assigning of decision making power to ineffective authorities may lead
to severe losses and the organization can even experience downfall. Moreover, decision-
making tendencies and organizational behavior practices are also reliant to sense of power in
the mediation and moderation of the management (Fast, Sivanathan, Mayer et. al, 2012). It is
also clarified in the research that the sense of power with a wrong visionary mediates a link
between overconfident decision making and supremacy.
Along with this, the competence of link between the power and ethical organizational
behavior remains ineffective when it is made incompetent to the powerful. Allocation of
adequate power to the powerful candidate of the domain facilitates the organization in
gaining competitive edge and building market value in the competitive world (Fast,
Sivanathan, Mayer et. al, 2012). The strict emphasis of the author to the allocation of power
within an organization also points towards the significance of ethical decision-making
tendencies and pecuniary regulations.

Considering the discussions of the proposed literature, it can be said that the author
has firm belief that sense of power and overconfidence are intensively connected to a great
extent. Also, allowance of power to incompetent candidature in the organizations may lead to
underperformance of potential candidate on accuracy tasks. Furthermore, it can also lead to
depression and demotivation among the employees due to lack of opportunities and unethical
work culture of the organization (Fast, Sivanathan, Mayer et. al, 2012). This literary work can
be considered as an informative piece of academic research. It has crucially validated the
course of study. The proposed ideas and perceptions by the authors present an appealing
remark to justify the aim and objectives of the research. In addition to this, it is a vital
contribution in the field of academic writing as it is a high-quality research content for the
future research aspirants.

Article 3: Journal of Organizational Behavior

“Journal of Organizational Behavior” undertaken by Masterson can be presented as a
decisive research study in the field of organizational behavior. Unlike other researchers, the
author has considered a diverse factor of time perspective and its impact on the attributes of
organizational behavior because time is considered as an important constituent from the
management perspective. The author believes that previous researchers largely focused on
clock time aspects of an organization, which, however, lacked a depression for the
psychological time as well as time perspective. Therefore, the researcher fulfilled the
limitations by concerning the testimonials of psychological time, time perspective, and
organizational outcomes through it. Various individuals and groups possess varying
perception towards time, so exploration of time perspectives assist in gaining proper insight
into individual's experience of organizational performance through the sense-making process
(Masterson, 2018).

Therefore, the anticipated research by Masterson is solely dedicated to time
perspective conceptualization in order to elucidate the complex relations of various
organizational behavior practices and time perspective themes. Even more, the author also
admits investigation of different time perspective conceptualization with organizational
behavior themes in order to verify the influence over organizational outcomes. The temporal
and dynamic relationship between the organizational behavior practices and various time
perspectives is fundamentally portrayed in the research study to make critical and
enlightening arguments (Masterson, 2018). In addition to this, this research study also acts as
an encouragement for the aspiring researchers to uncover and explore the affiliation of
organizational behavior themes and other time-related conceptualizations.
Thus, it can be conferred that this literature is an enormous contribution by Masterson
to explain the relations of organizational behavior and time perspective. The distinctive
approach of the author towards organizational behavior practices provided some new
gateways for the aspiring researchers. Moreover, the author also qualms the influence of time
perspective on the employment relationship, psychological contract, the reaction of pre-
retirement worker and goal orientation of the organization. The author also encourages the
further researchers to explore the reliability of the relation between job characteristics, time
perspective, and employee outcome. Thus, this study is an authentic academic literature,
which has potentially explored the required research loopholes.

On the basis of aforementioned discussions and analysis of the following articles,
some considerable recommendations regarding organizational behavior are proposed below:

 Communication: Better communication practices within the organization about the
goal-setting and task accomplishment can help the employees in analyzing their
efforts for successful contribution (Luthans, Luthans & Luthans, 2015).
 Accountability of Managers: Accounting managers on the basis of task allocation and
outcomes can help the organization in regulating effective utilization of power. Such
practices will lead to a sense of power to competent candidates, which will facilitate
the organization in all comportment (Borkowski, 2015).
 Bring Transparency to the Organization: The management of the organization should
always remain honest and authenticated towards its employees. Transparency and
appreciation will bring respect to the work culture among employees (Pinder, 2014).
 Individual Goal Setting: In order to promote employee participation, the organizations
are recommended to initiate individual goal setting practices for the employees. This
will boost the sense of belongingness and loyalty of the employee. The
encouragement of meeting the expected benchmark will empower the good
organizational behavior practices of the organization (Luthans, Luthans & Luthans,
 Workplace Improvements: The management is also proposed to improvise the
workplace conditions in order to facilitate the employees with better and comfortable
working environment. Improvised meeting rooms, proper lighting, advanced pieces of
equipment and ventilated common rooms boost the psychological perspective of
better performance. Moreover, the employees also feel valued on getting comfortable
spaces to work (Borkowski, 2015).
 Positive Reinforcement: The managers of the organization are further suggested to
incorporate reward system at every stage of operational practices in order to enhance
productivity. Rewards for better performance and task accomplishment facilitate the

attributes of ethical organizational behavior. Thus, the employees should be tempted
and honored by bonuses, gift cards or incentives to promote the level of participation
for the betterment of the organization (Pinder, 2014).
 Organizational Recognition: In order to encourage the practices of ethical
organizational behavior within the organization, the management is also proposed to
provide recognition to the efficient employees through newsletters, thanksgiving notes
and company annual events. The social recognition gained through the organization
stimulates the employees for consistent efforts. Furthermore, it will also prompt the
employees to go beyond the benchmarks and enhance their level of productivity.
Proficient members should be provided with the mentorship of the group to vitally
utilize the sense of power (Luthans, Luthans & Luthans, 2015).
Considering all the following recommendations will surely help the organization in
establishing a divine culture of ethical organizational behavior.


As per the discussions and analysis made above, it can be clearly inferred that
organizational behavior plays a crucial role in deciding the sustainability of the organization.
It even acts as a deciding factor in the work culture of the organization. This essay has
centrally considered the theme of organizational behavior. A thorough discussion about the
overall concept of organizational behavior is presented above in order to make a better
understanding of the proposed topic. Moreover, to validate the purpose of this essay, 3
academically published journal articles are also implicated in the study. A critical analysis of
all the articles is presented to explore the insights of organizational behavior practices and its
impact on the organization. In addition to this, the relativity of organizational behavior with
human decision process and time perspective is also discussed in the following essay. The

study has also discovered some loopholes in the academic journals and on the basis of that,
some firm recommendations are proposed for the organization. Incorporation of the
subsequent recommendations in the operational practices of the organization will surely help
in attaining ethical organizational behavior. Hence, this essay is an imperative piece of
research work as it has potentially justified the rationale of the topic.


Mitchell, M. S., Reynolds, S. J., & Treviño, L. K. (2017). The study of behavioral ethics
within organizations. Personnel Psychology, 70(2), 313-314.
Fast, N. J., Sivanathan, N., Mayer, N. D., & Galinsky, A. D. (2012). Organizational Behavior
and Human Decision Processes. Elsevier, 117(2), 249-260.
Masterson, S. S. (2018). Journal of Organizational Behavior. Willey Online Library, 39(3),
Luthans, F., Luthans, B. C., & Luthans, K. W. (2015). Organizational Behavior: An
evidence-based approach. IAP.
Pinder, C. C. (2014). Work motivation in organizational behavior. Psychology Press.
Borkowski, N. (2015). Organizational behavior in health care. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.