Sample Essay on Literature Review

This assessment expresses that, irrespective of the present modification, there are extremely grounded trends with concern to higher conditions of dismissal, prejudice and discernment of African American youngsters in the States. The learning of African American youngsters contains three major elements; they comprise ethnic multifariousness, educational success, and recognition of societal equity (Sampson, Sharkey, & Raudenbush, 2008). These elements appear to be significant for the African American youngsters in the States as when not engaged the life of the children could be in danger. The foundation of the theoretical account of these dynamics majorly demands maternal engagement (Evans, Li, & Whipple, 2013). The review will stress on why there still lives a breach amid African American youngsters when judged against their colleagues of Native American background both in learning institutions and life circumstances.

Level of the Predicament

As per studies by numerous researchers, African Americans consist about 13 percent of residents in America. The study also expresses that, more than 35% of African Americans below the age of 18 exist in impoverished conditions. African American youngsters have a 52% possibility of quitting school. African American youngsters are usually positioned in makeup classes, tripartite the ratio of their Native American colleagues, and they are atrophied in skilled and honor lessons. This data expresses that, African American youngsters are over-represented amid the underprivileged urban-institutes’ aged residents (Friedman et al., 2009). From the besieging features regarding living in underprivileged situations, investigators and teachers have specified that African American youngsters are at a great danger. Nonetheless, such arrangement could compromise the educational growth of the learners as of the suggestion that they are destined to fail at educational chases or attainments.


No Child Left Behind Act

Since this regulation was made effective by President Bush, it has raised the role of students and teachers in learning and has become the focus of education policy. At this period of community worry regarding the position of learning, the rule puts in place the requirements that reach every civic school in the Sates. This has been chiefly to advance the learning status of the disadvantaged groups, for instance, the African American learners. The Act seek to confirming that, the success breach amid the African American learners and their Native American classmates is eradicated (Lim et al., 2008). The Act takes several procedures that are proposed to drive wide aids and to hold a status that, learning institutions are responsible for the improvement of their learners. These procedures have drawn crucial amendments to the educational background.

Academic Success

To close the gap, guardians and parents of the African American children may request school vouchers to transfer them from failing institutions to better-performing schools, where their kids could be treated equally to their white counterparts. The Act appears to be a step on the right track thus, a more influential plan requires being laid down for African American students’ educational success. As per the Act, academic success is the biggest stressor of principals, tutors, and the nation. African American children commence kindergarten with less reading skills than white kids, though their parents went through the same experience and a similar number of years in education (Harris & Skyles, 2008). The African American children’s underperformance begins when they initially start formal education. As per National Education Statistics, African American children have the nethermost performance on the regular assessments of educational success.

Some of the major contributing features of the African American kids’ low educational performance include over-representation in special academic classes, low expectations by the tutors, and association with low-achieving peers. Different to the common belief that the majority of urban African American children struggle educationally, research has proved that 1,320 of high succeeding minorities are acknowledged in highly-deprived institutions in which learners’ standardized scores are normally in the third best of all schools in their state at various grades (Lewis & Kim, 2008). Therefore, relationship amid the group of environmental stressors that confront urban African American children and their educational performance is neither elementary nor concrete. The academic success gap, specifically the mathematics’ achievement difference amid the African-American students and their white colleagues, has been properly acknowledged. Moreover, a latest Education Trust data has documented that, the US students are improving their academic performance; it also accounted that the success gap amid the African American and the white students associated with mathematics, has been increasing and that the tutors have not thoroughly comprehended the cause.

African America children have been achieving several gains with respect to their educational performance, but countrywide statistics are still perfect indicators of the negatives that are still dominant involving the quitting rate, suspensions, and riddance (Thomas & Stevenson, 2009). Their admission in institutions of higher learning remains to be of lower rate compared to their white counterparts. The people who are normally left to fight for the education of the African American children are some teachers. Nevertheless, one should consider what takes place in their interactions with the students when tutors are not trained to identify the cultural dissimilarities in members of other ethnic groups, for instance, the African American children.

Cultural Diversity

The duty of teachers covers more than test scores and complying with federal standards. Responsibility calls for persons to teach children about the world and eventually themselves. This is made problematic for African American learners and others who have few role models who look like them in the positions of tutors in reputable institutions and campuses. Progressively, public institutions’ educators are mainly Native Americans, while the number of African American tutors is declining (Chavous, Rivas-Drake, Smalls, Griffin, & Cogburn, 2008). By a majority of educators being Native Americans, it appears that the necessity for thoroughly trained, culturally sensitive tutors who could comprehend the necessities of different students is majorly needed. Presently, 17% of all students in elementary institutions in the US are African Americans; nonetheless, only 7% of tutors are of this ethnic group. Moreover, 1% of the present teachers are African American males with the majority of them located in middle institutions and high schools. It is common that an African American student could study from kindergarten to twelfth grade without seeing an African American tutor.

The majority of African American college alumnae, who choose to venture in the teaching profession, could confront unwelcoming surrounding, having gone through devaluation and discrimination in the classroom (Burchinal, Roberts, Zeisel, & Rowley, 2008). The African American educators’ programs and the environment they go through in the US are some of the chief reasons, which make the majority of them quit from the teaching profession. African American students’ tutors frequently experience debasement of self-worth and individual knowledge in the tutorial room. However, though it is advantageous for a learner to make it in the tutorial room, it appears that, for African Americans, spending sufficient time in the classroom has become a frightening gainsay.

Social Justice

The elements surrounding the schooling of African American children are not simple or complete. Withal, it is safe to undertake more culturally conscious tutorial rooms that are well equipped to handle the different requirements of African American children. Moreover, some researchers have assumed that high marks, school attendance, and an absence of conduct affairs are agents of psychological welfare in metropolitan African American students. Nevertheless, various metropolitan African American youths, engaging in such positive attitudes could result in social seclusions, bullying, mockery, declined peer and societal self-esteem and feelings of community and cultural perfidy (Skiba et al., 2011). Fractions of high suspensions at the middle-school level cause school-aged children to miss significant lessons that could prepare them for exams, which may considerably impact their marks. Lack of suitable basis for education could result in remedial lessons and fall more behind in trying to meet grade-level standards. The inequality and high level of suspension of African American students should not be tolerated at all. Furthermore, institutions’ boards should handle the matter before such doings become effective to the students.

The American Civil Liberties have been for a long period in the front line to question the reasons behind schools pushing out the minority students. For the reason that the No Child Left Behind Act is effective, learning institutions are feeling the force of not suspending the low-performing learners; instead, they have ended up increasing exam scores. Tutors must learn how to handle all learners equally irrespective of their sex or ethnic background. Zero allowance rules only are unsuccessful and hinder the success of the African American students. The only big aspect in African American children comes from the basis (Skiba et al., 2011). An individual cannot develop educational success, social fairness, or cultural diversity without the basis of the parent being employed. Parent or guardian participation is positively associated with good school results. The bigger percentage of the success of a student comes from the role that a parent enforces to his/her child in education. Parental participation is composite and comprises homework aid, school involvement, and management.



Communalism comprises the significance of social bonds and responsibilities. This reflects an essential sense of interdependence and preeminence of collective welfare and provides the drive for association and promotion inside and across various groups. For African American children to advance into persons involved in best personal and collective growth, they should be engaged in certain accountabilities (Thomas & Stevenson, 2009). This could be influential in ensuring that they positively contribute to their families, learning institutions, and the community at large. By this, they will develop to be agents of substantial and sustainable positive transformation within a participatory independent foundation, which could succeed and endure.

Emotional Development

Youngsters who are emotionally well-regulated normally exhibit a positive mood, are affirmative, and demonstrate understanding and good social conduct when with their colleagues (Burchinal et al., 2008). Ability to comprehend emotions is linked to perfect social and behavioral results. This is a significant component of the emotional ordinance, expression, and position taking. As children move through their advancement tasks, the responsibility of cultural components cannot be overlooked. An examination of the cultural look of emotion from African American children is critical to comprehend its growth and relationship to resilience and strength.

Emotional competence needs a firm and positive sense of self-efficaciousness so that children may believe that they can achieve the necessities around them when seeking to work with others. This is significant to African American children, who must learn to succeed academically in spite of their overrepresentation in under-resourced learning institutions. It also assists them to get along with their white colleagues, in spite of the institutional discriminations, and improve meaningful relations with others (Chavous et al., 2008). Rather than being deflected with apparent intimidations and self-defeating positions, African American children well-laid emotional competence can marshal resources, learn fresh info, obtain new sights, and improve their endowments regardless of the bad messages from society contrary to the community context. Concern for others and a sense of a higher drive could assist children and youth to become involved leaders and activists for their communities. African American children could benefit from adjacent association with and monitoring by caregivers, two aspects which within the background of the family, prevent problematic behavior and uphold competence.

African American care providers have proved that culturally particular parenting practices could be conceptualized as maternal strengths that nurture children’s social growth. In learning institutions, the social processes amid tutors, students, and peers are significant for setting behavioral standards and expectations that enhance cooperative involvement in school (Thomas & Stevenson, 2009). Prognosticating caring aspects in community resilience are linked to educators’ practices, the behavioral norms of the tutorial rooms, and atmosphere of the learning institution as a whole. African American students’ growth could also depend on the effect of compeer in the tutorial room, and study on peer norms, relationships in schools, reduced violence, and developing of improved cooperation. Community setting is critically significant to the welfare of African American youth. High-quality child upkeep, after-school programs, and faith-grounded institutes are defensive resources and deterrent interference platforms. Such programs require being suitable, handling multiple health-compromising performances, provide services, withstand intervention over time, and contain a school attention with family, peer, and communal elements.

Parental Participation

Parental participation in the learning process is an important predictor of academic success for African American children. Other family features are also prognostic of school functioning. A per research of low-income African American families, those children succeeding educationally had parents who were warm, supervised their kids’ time, and set criteria for academic behavior (Lewis & Kim, 2008). Parents who have and practice attitudes, objectives, and actions directed toward educational success are vital to developing positive school results for their children.

Dissimilar to the idea that strict parenting styles are helpful to kids growing up in urban, low-income backgrounds, research has linked harsh child-care styles with poor academic success. African Americans are excessively denoted as low-income populaces (Harris & Skyles, 2008). For instance, children from rich families are believed to have better academic success than those from low-income backgrounds in the US. However, as per recent analysis, it is not usually straightforward or strong. Moreover, the analysis has documented poor results in investigating the procedure by which fiscal limits function to impact cognitive achievement. Parental participation, and their relations with children, and the potential of the home setting seem to be a major mechanism in the impact of education and cognitive results. Though a sense of school belonging is significant for all learners, it could be particularly essential for African American students, who are more likely to feel alienated in school settings where morals and principles are different from their own. While the majority of children experience some stress, for instance, from poor grades when they move to middle school and high school, African American children are at a higher risk for school failure than their American colleagues. Furthermore, they feel more detached when the culture of the school setting is different from their own.

Cognitive Development

Cognitive skills are some of the fundamental indicators of kid and adolescent growth, and studies have found it highly improbable that children with immature academic and acquisitions may be successful. Resilience in cognitive running is the estimated expression of ability in intellectual, language, educational, and vocational skill, in spite of exposure to developmental risk factors (Lim et al., 2008). For African American children to be resilient, they should acquire self-motivation for critical thinking, involvement with academic material, establish flexible intelligent, and give their skills back to the community. It is imperative that African American youth establish competence in key educational skills and higher command information processing. The key to the procedure of emerging cognitive skills steady with anticipations for all children and adolescents is the background in which African American youth are raised and the exclusive individual qualities every youngster brings to his or her environment.

Since individuals live in an ethnically conscious society that seems to suppress as opposed to elevating, African American youth are particularly vulnerable to that which unfairness offers; the suboptimal development of the very skills are vital to their success. In spite of these adversities, African American children do exhibit resilience, and research is just commencing to examine how this takes place (Friedman et al., 2009). Research has recommended that such individual features as educational self-efficacy or the child’s faith in his or her academic competence work as protective features for African American children at risk for poor cognitive performance. Academic self-efficacy could influence children’s choice of actions, the extent of effort they commit to achieving an objective, and their perseverance on tasks. Some evidence has affirmed the impression that academic self-efficacy is chiefly significant for American teachers’ prejudiced attitudes and their relations with African American students pose the danger of poor cognitive results.

Studies have revealed that African American children exposed to tutors who showed genuine concern for their academic success established improved cognitive results. Research shows that African Americans, amid other cultural groups, demonstrate more of a communal predilection than an individualistic one and this has inspired important study into the role of the common viewpoint on learning in schools (Sampson et al., 2008). The related empirical work has been steady in demonstrating that African American students learn more and desire education contexts that uphold the expression of a common orientation. Since positive cultural identification is also connected to academic success, research continues to examine methods to infuse ethnic themes into the tutorial rooms as a way of enhancing educational outcomes.


Given the social realities that exist, for instance, discrimination, bias, and racism, African American children face problems that could compromise their health and welfare. However, most studies neglect race, society, and culture completely or try to control for variables connected to acculturation and supplemental educational services. To do so is ambiguous, as culture and associated variables are imbedded in potential intercessors and results. Hypotheses, for instance, positive family background and social support, are not the area of any specific gender, age, or cultural group and exist to some degree for all groups of children. The balanced method that admits the limitations of past viewpoints and recognizes the role of modern culture, social policy, and history in the development of African Americans in the US should be put in place. Recognizing and enhancing strength and resilience amid African American Children requires consideration of the tutors, researchers, policymakers, and practitioners to ensure their success in the 21st century.




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