Classical organizational theory emerged to illustrate the unification of scientific management, administrative theory, and the bureaucratic theory. The theory asserts that organizations exist to attain production-related and economic objectives. The presence of scientific management in this theory supports the conception that production can only be carried out in one best way, and that way can be attained through systematic scientific inquiry. Classical theories emphasize that productivity can be maximized through division of labor and employing specialist in every department. Rational economic principles are the most important drives of human and organizational behaviors.
Neoclassical organizational theory modifies the classical theory by criticizing it for minimizing the humanity of organizational members, the harmonizing requirements of administrative units, as well as decision-making processes (Shafritz and Jang 93). The neoclassical school endeavored to advance classical theory through undertaking research in behavioral sciences. The theory incorporated behavioral science into management concepts to solve the problems that resulted from the classical theory practices. Neoclassical theory depicts real concern for human desires. Neoclassical school argues that organizations cannot exist as autonomous entities, without the surrounding environment. In the 1960s, any school of organization referred to the neoclassical theory for article referencing.
Both classical and neoclassical schools perceived conflict as something that can be avoided since it creates disequilibrium. Both theories made incomparable contribution toward the advancement of management thought. Neoclassical theory has been quite useful in the advancement of organization theory, in addition to strengthening the concepts of classical theory. Through discipline and rationality that the classical school demonstrated, emphasis on personal security and social demand emerged from the neoclassical theory.
If I would become a presidential nominee to head one of the federal cabinet departments in the future, I would prefer to work in the Health and Human Services (HHS) Department. I am particularly concerned with the well-being of the American people, particularly when I see people dying from preventable chronic diseases. Thus, working in the HHS would enable me to exercise my capacity to safeguard the health of every American citizen, in addition to expanding programs that would boost the lifestyle of all citizens. A successful leader has to demonstrate the trait theory of management and leadership. According to this theory, a successful leader should portray honesty and integrity in his work while instilling confidence among his subordinates.
As a transactional leader, I would enhance my relationship with my subordinates by awarding them benefits whenever they depict an increase in productivity. A transactional leadership is expressed in ego states, where activities are described as coherent systems of feelings that create sets of behavior patterns (Clarkson 42). An ego state is split into three theories: namely, parent, adult, and child ego states. In parent ego state, the leader behaves like a caretaker, or a parent, and is ready to listen to employees’ issues, with an aim of offering solutions. In the adult ego state, the leader handles the current issues without focusing on the past while in child ego state, the leader exercise the past knowledge to offer solutions to current issues.
Conflicts are always presence where a group of people works together. Handling conflicts requires leaders to understand the contingency theory, which asserts that conflict in the workplace can never be avoided, but can be managed. Leaders are capable of exercising the contingency theory if they feel that their followers would respond to their advice. Being a transformational leader would enable me to identify the needed change in the HHS department, in additional to create a vision, which would guide towards change. A transformational leader acts as a role model for others to follow. He motivates his followers and encourages them to find appropriate ways to handle issues in their working environment.
Clarkson, Petruska. Transactional Analysis Psychotherapy: An Integrated Approach. London: Routledge, 2013. Print.
Shafritz, Jay M, J S. Ott, and Yong S. Jang. Classics of Organization Theory. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.