The Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)
The complexity of the Middle East politics has been one of the most grueling matrixes of all times. For example, the forceful friction has generated heated confrontations between the Palestinians and the Israelis for over three decades now. With a keen scrutiny of the calculative maneuvers of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO), an organization established way back in the 1964 with mandate and purpose to “liberate Palestine” by way of armed freedom struggle. Since inception, PLO has been seen as the authentic voice and representation of the Palestine. In the view of game theory, PLO calculated to wipe out the Zionists and retain the British era borders of 1948 for the Palestine as the ultimate equation (Slater 81). This game plan over the years seems to have changed tact. The original formula of coopting likes on one side of the equation and dislikes on the opposing side heightened the temperatures to a point of collapsing the economic regional economic stability. This approach made several nations to support the PLO. Majority supporters were from the Middle East, whereas majority of those in agreement with the Israel were from the West (Lucas and Russell 137).
More often than not, game theory approach in the Middle East leaves everyone in a conflict mode, with every divide casting aspersions and cold war attitude across the nations under the suspicion of “if you are not with us, you are against us”. An observer of the turn of events would conclude that this unrelenting clashing and heightening temperatures amount to a ‘zero-sum’ since there seems to be no clear winner. By the nature of PLO’s guerilla kind of attacks to the Israel since inception until 1991, Israel and the United States of America declared this organization as a terrorist gang. However, in 1993, the PLO softened their stance acknowledging right to peaceful existence of Israel and rejected terrorism and violence. Israel on the other hand officially acknowledged PLO to be legitimate Palestinian people’s representatives (Cassese 564).
The Rwandese Atrocities
Rwanda is a small country in the heart of Africa, which is made up of just two tribes, the Hutu and Tutsi. The population of this country is seven million, majority of who are Hutu at 85%, Tutsi 14% and a 1% of Twa though the twa is most of the time dissolved in the rest and not mentioned. Though these people lived in unity before colonial, the German and the Belgium made them believe that they were indeed different. Germany, the first to colonize Rwanda, favored Tutsis and gave them better job opportunities, while Belgium introduced the Identity cards with inscriptions of the differences. This kind of classification was the key contributor of the heated differences in the year 1994, which saw a total of 800,000 people slaughtered within a 100 days period (Raper 1).
This kind of classification led to calling each other names that deepened the differences. The Identity card system was a step away from each other in terms of cohesion. The Germany made Hutu population believe tall persons, the Tutsi, were more intelligent than the shorter ones, the Hutu. This kind of Dehumanization began to form hatred, rage, acrimony, and mockery. Coded language is another tool to facilitate genocidal atmosphere, which is also seen to have had escalated hate speech and unfriendliness, as through their communication demeaning attitude bipolarized the Rwandan demographics. At the break of 1990, the stage was ripe for genocide. Civil war set the stage with organized militia groups, which were favored by the ruling Hutu government. Majority of the Tutsis went on exile while others regrouped to form a counter movement by the name Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF). In the wake of the 06th April in the year 1994, an airplane carrying Rwandan presided among other top government officials was shot down killing all on board in the city triggering the infamous Rwandan genocide. Government forces turned their wrath on suspected perpetrators, the Tutsi, not sparing their own Hutu sympathizers. They could put up roadblock and identify the Tutsis and execute them on the spot. This extermination took a record 100 days and at the end of it all 800, 000 people had been exterminated. Today in Rwanda things are running as though nothing just went wrong. No one took responsibility but a chain of blame game. Majority of the financiers went away scot-free while a great population is a statistic of orphans, widows and widowers (Ansoms 504).
Ansoms, An. “Resurrection after civil war and genocide: growth, poverty and inequality in post-conflict Rwanda.” The European journal of development research 17.3 (2005): 495-508.
Cassese, Antonio. “Israel-PLO Agreement and Self-Determination, The.” Eur. J. Int’l L. 4 (1993): 564.
Lucas, Russell E. “Deliberalization in Jordan.” Journal of democracy 14.1 (2003): 137-144.
Raper, Jessica. “Gacaca Experiment: Rwanda’s Restorative Dispute Resolution Response to the 1994 Genocide, The.” Pepp. Disp. Resol. LJ 5 (2005): 1.
Slater, Jerome. “Lost Opportunities for Peace in the Arab-Israeli Conflict: Israel and Syria, 1948–2001.” International Security 27.1 (2002): 79-106.