Sample Essay on Issues of our Times (PSCI 105)

Question One

The worst problem is the Central American gangs. Much of the killings experienced in America are committed by the street gangs. The region is also home to organized crime syndicates that smuggle drugs north to the U.S. Mexico has been singled out as countries with the highest number of gangs. It is estimated that by 2012, the U.S. government was spending approximately $100 million on drug interdiction, policing, and anti-corruption programs in Central America (Shifter 17-18).


Question Two

The US was behind the crime problem. Some experts contend that the government dysfunction enabled the crime to take hold develops out of the Cold War era of heavy U.S. involvement in the region. The U.S. made policy decisions that prioritized short-term of wining battles over insurgents and people considered communist over long-term stability of the nation. The see U.S. is too blamed for the problem. They assert that the crime in Central Americans grew out during the civil war and transplanted to Central America when the members were deported. The people affected by the problem state that the Triangle’s governing business class has filed to accept additional responsibility for the regional problems (Sokatch 1; Casas-Zamora 1).

Question Three

The U.S political and economic was involved initially in the exportation of bananas. The United Fruit Co. played a major role in the CIA-backed coup in Guatemala, which led to the collapse of the country’s second democratically elected president. The Roman Catholic Church did not play any role. The coup was conducted between the military strongman and the small Marxist guerrilla force, which had taken root in the rural highlands. The Roman Catholic Church was involved majorly in the Salvadoran Civil War and assisted in the building of support for radical social change.

            Question Four

After President Reagan took office in 1981, the Washington’s political establishment considered U.S. financial support and training of the Salvadoran military being significant in the prevention of communism from spreading in Central America. President Carter had cut off military aid due to human rights violations and encourages respect for human rights. The “Contras”, a counter-revolutionary militia was the group headed by Daniel Ortega. The group’s aim was to topple the Sandista government. This made their relationship with the policies of President Reagan become sour. Eventually, the Congress later on prohibited the U.S. from funding the Contras.

            Question Five

The Ukraine sided with the militia group and opened it door to the immigrants, when the move for U.S. in issuing arrest warrant appeared to be politically motivated. The move by Ukraine was also perceived as a move to side with the Russians over the issue. The U.S. interventionism overseas cut support to the group and the government. The Ukraine was at fault because they ignorantly became involved in the war.

            Question Six

El Salvador is not a major north-south corridor in drug smuggling. Allegations of assisting drug traffickers have not been followed up. This infiltration was defining the government’s anti-crime strategy. The government in this country is focused at fighting crime in every level through the iron-fist, referred to as Mano Dura. The government in Salvador involved the police-military to sweep through the gang-controlled neighborhoods, arrest, and imprison anyone with the appearance of tattoos, which is an indication of gang membership. From the textbook, there are no solid data on criminal activity in the triangle nations. This complicates the response to the varied forms of crime.

            Question Seven

Mara Salvatrucha has been involved in gang related murders and maiming, and use of firearms in crime violence that resulted to numerous deaths. To Jose, they were trying to take over his life. According to Jose, he did not want to be part of the group. The group made him steals money and demand money from stores. In case he refused, the group members would beat him or kill a relative of his. Jose had to seek cover in West Virginia. Virginia was named as having problems similar to the discussed issue.

            Question Eight

Apart from the issue of rape, murder, drug dealing, immigrants are seeking access to the U.S. from Mexico run away from the grip of gangs, poverty, and inequality. Among the immigrants are unaccompanied children and some with their mothers. In this case, the immigrant was a youngster who left the family to peruse economic opportunity and avid gang violence. This shows that there is a crisis. The children and adolescents are running away from the government that cannot protect them, they are running away from the hopeless situation to a normal life. This is against the President’s allegation. The law enforcement is widely loosing trust among the citizens as high number of impunities increases.

            Question Nine

The smugglers imprisoned Said for nine months while the parents raised money for his journey. The smugglers then beat him to force the boy to an overloaded fishing trawlers headed for Italy. This was at the Libyan border. Said was from Somalia and desired to reach Norway. Said was among the 28 survivors from the trawlers to have been rescued in 2015 after hitting a rescue ship in the Mediterranean Sea.

            Question 10

The world worse refugee crisis since WWII is the Mediterranean migration route to Europe. One million refugees and migrants crossed to Europe by last year. This is five times the increase over arrivals in 2014 according to UNHCR.

            Question 11

Solution to the problem offered is anti-immigration policies. This will not solve the problem singly. This is because the ongoing Syrian conflict is intensifying the crisis thereby increasing the number of immigrants and refugees. It is besides difficult to send away the immigrants who came to look for work, since they also endure human rights violations and cannot easily return to their countries. In such cases, these immigrants resort to working in the black market where they become exploited.

            Question 12

The British Prime Minister feels that the immigrants need to be warned about deportation before arriving into the country. This is among the strategies for streamlining the asylum system. Other experts cite the cause of the crisis to come from the military interference of the countries by the Western governments. Weil cites that the international community cannot become involved since it is difficult to change anything in the EU regulations. Another challenge is that some EU countries such as Germany have low population and may need more workers to assume the roles Europeans ignore such as caring for the majority elder category.

            Question 13

Schengen area is the region-governed by the Schengen Agreement of 1991. Travelers within the region were allowed to cross freely to Spain before going back to their countries. Travelers will not be allowed to cross easily. This is after the drowning of the Africans in early 2000s. Besides, there has been increased illegal immigration. Increased immigrant policies will make travelers unable to follow the example of Brexit. This is because; it is presently difficult for any person outside the EU to obtain a visa. Temporary work visas can be another alternative to allow for multiple entries into Europe.

            Question 14

Hungary’s President announced that his country would build a 13-foot-high fence on its border with Serbia as response to the crisis. The U.S. is presently working to build a fence separating it from Mexico. Austria, Germany, Denmark, Slovenia, and Croatia are among other countries that have tightened border controls. These announcements are increasing with the increase of illegal immigrants and related crises.

            Question 15

Immigrants from EU countries in Eastern Europe such as Poland have replaced those from India and Africa. Brexit is likely to transfer their tax support to one another in form of free health system instead of supporting the immigrants. There can raise distrust of foreigners and hostilities to immigrants. Brexit is a significant factor in relation to the trend since it is accepting immigrants who are mostly uneducated.

            Question 16

The U.S intelligence agencies are accusing Russia of becoming involved in its election. President Trump has negated the allegations while President Obama has gone ahead and proved Russian indulgence to the American Intelligence system. The controversy is not yet over since President Trump is presently accusing the former president of his connections to Russia. It is publicly evident that President Trump is involved with Russia. This is considered true based on his close associates who have been found in close and private communications with the Russian government. Investigations are still underway regarding the issue.

            Question 17

France placed hundred of French Muslims under house arrest. Regarding the 41 cases, the government has admitted it was mistaken. These actions were not random, since increased terrorist attacks were eminent and illegal immigrants from the Muslim nations posed the threats to the citizens in various nations such as Germany. The political climate had started becoming unfriendly to immigrants from the Muslim nations. These were not random actions as Europe in general became increasingly jittery about terrorist threats from Islamic radicals. This has been witnessed in U.S. where immigrants from certain countries are denied entrance to the country.

            Question 18

Tunisia. 38 people were killed, among them 30 Britons in that attack. This group has killed scores of people in different parts of the world. Al Qaeda an affiliate group is based in Libya and seeks to establish its foothold across North Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and the Southeast Asia. Al Qaeda is a Sunni Muslim Group.

            Question 19

Russian controversy has negatively affected some government officials, since some of the officials have resigned to allow for intelligence investigations conducted regarding their relationship with Russia. Presently six of the president’s close aides have been summoned for investigations. Among them is Michael Flynn, the national security adviser who was recently forced to resign. The president has however affirmed that he still trust his security adviser.

            Question 20

The parable offered by Dr. Fazlur touched on the issue of the spread of the Muslim terrorism at the expense of the weak governments. The parable aimed at highlighting the objective of the Muslims to convert everyone to strict Sunni subjects. This parable highlights the need for governments to protect strongly their boundaries in a bid to fight the war of terror. According to Dr. Fazlur, it may be difficult to fight and overcome the terror groupings as long as we remain unsecured in our borders. According to the class lectures, the quote refers to the basis of human beings dissociating themselves from problems and the desire to associate with achievements. This refers to the few countries that have offered to fight the terror groups against the majority that will enjoy the benefits of eradicating terrorism.

Question 21

The Bible and the Quran have categorically stated the human beings have their freedom to exercise free will. This is the ability of every individual to choose the desirable action whether it be good or bad. This implies that human beings cannot be controlled by the religion rules to act. This implies further that the American president cannot be blamed for the political outcomes as witnessed in Iraq since the ISIS are geared towards mass killings and the spread of their religion. This implies further that ISIS is a terrorist group and not an Islamic group.

Question 22

America is engaged in a war of survival in Scheuer’s view, a conflict in which the choices are between what two things continuing in the fight against the terrorist groups and giving up the fight while concentrating on the fight against cyber crime. The main reason, according to the terrorist groups, of their US attacks is their involvement in the Middle East. As a result, they are also avenging for the attacks against the Islam.

Question 23

The most important motivation for the enemy is what the U.S does and not what it is and what it believes in. This, Scheuer asserts that are produced in every document from the Enemies. He goes on to explain that the enemy is less concerned with the feminism and the democracy of even elections as purported. This is because these issues can never be realized in their countries. Scheuer would never agree that with the statement that the terrorist hate us for our freedoms and democracy. This is because he clearly affirms that the increase of the ISIS activities and Al Qaeda is due to the American involvement in the global war on terrorism. It is only in altering the statuesque of the policies on the Islamic world can the war cease.

Question 24

Scheuer believes that America should get out of the Middle East. This is because the American threat from AL Qaeda and other terrorist groups is real. Besides, this more attacks are evident from Assyria and the immigrants returning from the western nations. It is therefore evident that there are likely chanced that more terrorists may be lying within the nation and await to hit at the least possible time.

Question 25

According to Scheuer, the U.S. cannot win the war if it relies on intelligence operations and military actions, although harsher and more prolonger implementations of the tools will e needed. This is because the only option U.S. has is between war and endless war. He asserts that Bin Laden and the terrorists presented a struggle that U.S. cannot avoid, the conflict, whose choices lies not in war and peace and in war and endless war.

Question 26

Scheuer according to his description has an Israelite edge. The official in the U.S government that is best known for the same edge is President Trump. These two officials speak plainly when defining their positions regarding issues affecting the country.

            Question 27

The greatest gift from the U.S. to the terrorists is to boycott the Syria peace effort. The U.S. failed to cooperate with Russia because they perceived that  Russia was protecting the bloc and thereby had hidden agenda. The terrorists were happy with the move because they saw it as a failure from the Super powers to separate the moderates from the jihadists.

            Question 28

The greatest gift to the terrorist from the U.S. described in the question above is the U.S. ban on Muslim arrivals. This is because it is a sign of unjustifiable U.S. claims with the Iranian while still solving issues with the government. The banned countries will also protect their own against the harsh Washington’s policies.

Question 29

Cocaine travels from South America to U.S and Europe while opiate routes run from Afghanistan to Europe. From the Text, France has risen to become the largest source of legally produced opiates and cocaine. The opiate and cocaine markets expanded due to the energetic efforts by traffickers from the U.S. and other places who created international smuggling routes.

            Question 30

Bank of America agreed on 21 August to pay $16.6 billion to settle Justice Department charges of fraud. The crime associated with the company was to sell mortgage-backed securities. It is impossible to prove criminal intent by executives in cases arising from the financial crash. Moreover, UNODC’s data fails to include those of financial institutions allegedly acting fraudulently.

            Question 31

The deputy issues a veiled threat that the energy supplies are important in the run up to winter, hoping that the region will not freeze. The relationship is poor since the former Soviet republic was to sign a major pact that it had negotiated with the EU. Moldova was a small country that was heavily dependent on Russian natural gas. There was a tag of war between Russia and EU over Moldova since 2008.

            Question 32

The expression ‘resurgent Russia refers to the elevated Russia from the marginal player to a power that defines the events in the geopolitical hotspots, the Middle East. Russia is still a significant international economic force with its power concentrated on energy. The background lies in the need for economic development against the rise of violent extremism. Led by the Deputy President, the republic opposes Islamist militancy in the Middle East, and seeks to unite the bloc to form EEU. In Syria, Russia has become very pragmatic. The main objective is to have allies to maintain a global influence.

            Question 33

The term ’reset’ with Russia implies that it is adjusting again after an initial failure. This further goes to the period before the cold war when Russia sought to become a world super power. The ambitious goal by the American presidents turned out negatively as their perspective was towards a new chapter in the cold war. Rather than being pragmatic towards collaborating the presidents have attacked the nation. This is mainly attributed to the security-based relations rather than the trade-based relations that could have been practical with the pragmatic approach. The reset with Russia has failed since the presidents failed at being pragmatic and held a tougher stance with Russia for bullying its neighbors.


Works Cited

Shifter Michael, “Countering Criminal Violence in Central America”. Council on Foreig