Philosophy can refer to a set of beliefs regarding reality. Some people view it as one’s cohesive perspective of the world and may encompass thoughts about existence, human beings and their roles in this world. Primarily, philosophy has been termed the foundation of knowledge. Therefore, this paper seeks to unfold some familiar philosophical topics commonly studied.
First, Plato’s theory of forms is a philosophy that states that there areinconsequential universe known as ‘forms,’ which are excellent ways of day-day things like a bird, table, joy, emotions/ideas, etc. Nonetheless, the ideas and objects in the material world are known as shadows of forms. Plato states that the forms are pure, transcendent, causes, Archetypes, systematically interconnected, and ultimately real.
Second, Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics is a philosophical inquest into the descent life for humans. In this philosophy, Aristotle starts by suggesting the existence of ultimate good where every human action eventually aims. The essential features of the ultimate good can be final, complete continuous, and self-continuous. This good where every human action explicitly or implicitly targets is the source of happiness. Aristotle also argues that the pleasure in suitably comprehended as the stable and ongoing dynamic, a manner of being in all sorts of action, precisely suitable to the soul of humans and nearly virtuous or excellent.
Third, Lao-Tzu developed the Tao Te Ching philosophy that simply teaches about a cosmic, dynamic structure underlying all that happen in this world. Lao-Tzu states that human beings need to identify the Tao way, which is immanent in every way of the world. Conversely, Confucius developed the concept of Confucianism. This is a multifaceted system of social, moral, religious, and political thought. The key Confucian perceptions embrace ren (humaneness or humanity), zhong (loyalty), zheng ming (same to the notion of the Mandate of Heaven), li (ritual), and xiao (devoted piety). It brought together the golden rule, which essentially means treat others, as you may want to be treated, the notion of Yang and Yin, and the concept of reconciling opposites and meritocracy to reach certain middle ground.
Fourth, the idea of relativism is a concept that shows that views lack absolute validity or truth within themselves, however, only relative and subjective value based on differences in consideration and perception. Aristotle discussed that things remain same though relative to other things. This is a one-doctrine affair, but rather a cluster of opinions whose general theme is that certain aspect of thought, experience, evaluation is some way about any other thing.
Additionally, the philosophy of the Sophists, which forms the concept of sophism refers to a group of Pre-Socratic teachers specified in using the methods of rhetoric and philosophy for the purpose of teaching virtue or excellence largely to nobility and young diplomats. The sophists held relativistic opinions on knowledge and cognition as well as skeptical thoughts on morality, truth and their philosophy mostly encompassed criticism of law, religion, and ethics.
Markus Aurelius, a Stoic philosopher, contributed largely to the society. He ensured shift between the Greek classical philosophy or values and Christian philosophy. This occurred through series of meditations, which were essential and shaped the way people lived.
Thomas Aquinas has five ways to prove the existence of God. The first argument emanates from that of motion and evidenced that the world has things that exist in a state of motion. The second argument is the nature of efficient cause where in the world there is an order of sufficient cause. The third case originates from the necessity and possibility. The fourth evidence originates from the gradation that takes place in things, and the fifth evidence arises from the power of the world.
Finally, Enchiridion of Epictetus states that there are certain things in the world that we have control and lack control over other things. Things that can be monitored are pursuit, opinion, desire, etc. Things within no control are reputation, property, command, etc