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Sample Research Proposal Paper on Effect of Passiflora Incarnata in Asthma among Adults

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Sample Research Proposal Paper on Effect of Passiflora Incarnata in Asthma among Adults

Introduction

Asthma is one of the well-known chronic diseases in present society and there is increasing proven facts that suggest its prevalence and severity is growing. There has been a high incidence of utilization of the complementary medication for the disease. Herbal preparations including Passiflora incarnate preparation have been cited as the 3rd most known complementary treatment modality by asthma suffers. The disease which normally results from airway inflammation and mucus secretion can result in wheezing, cough and dyspnea. According to research, about 17 million individuals in the United States are suffering from asthma, an increasing number which has resulted to increased interest in the utilization nutritional practices in controlling asthma(Miroddi et al, 2013). Asthmatic condition is characterized by an increase in airway inflammation, secretion of mucus as well as bronchial responsiveness to various stimuli, resulting in recurrent occurrences of wheezing, coughing as well as dyspnea. One of the key causes of air route hyperresponsiveness is Nitric Oxide. Passiflora incarnate has been successfully utilized in bronchial asthma the leaves of this plant are being used in South Africa as diuretic as well as hemorrhoidal inflammations. The Italians are using a combination of Passiflora incarnate, belladonna as well as lobelia to treat asthma. This paper therefore discusses the Effect of Passiflora incarnata in asthma among adults(Yockteng, d’Eeckenbrugge, & Souza-Chies, 2011).

Literature Review

Passiflora incarnate has a history of use with health challenges in various countries. In South Africa, Passiflora incarnate have been utilized to control anxiety, insomnia, asthma as well as bronchitis. The extract of the plant consists of three antioxidants including cyanided-30-glucoside, quwrcetin-30-glucoside as well as edulic acid, and has indicated to control nitric oxide in rats that are considered to be hypertensive. In the year 2008, a study was carried out with 42 asthmatic individuals. Among the 42 subjects, all those who took part showed wheeze symptoms at the beginning of the experiment, but only 19% of those who took the Passiflora incarnate showed sysmptoms at the end of the experiment. Out of the 90% subjects with shortness of breath at the start of the experiment, about 10% of them had symptoms after medication. About 100% of the subjects with cough at the start of the experiment, roughly 20%, had symptoms after taking the medication. Based on these results, it is clear that Passiflora incarnate significantly improved asthmatic symptoms after its usage without serious side effects. It was therefore concluded that Passiflora incarnate extracts may be safely given to asthmatic patients as an alternative medical option to minimize clinical symptoms(Miroddi et al, 2013).Even though Passiflora incarnate has been shown in animal research to have sedative as well as antispasmodic side effects, researchers are not yet sure which compounds in Passiflora incarnate plant have these properties.

Passiflora incarnate is known to consist of flavonoids and alkaloid elements including harmaline and harmalol. In the past researches it has been hypothesized that the medicinal effects of the plant are derived from a combination of these elements rather than any of them when on its own. A recent research conducted in Swiss, however indicated that a flavonoid known as chrysin could be the source of Passiflora incarnate’s anxiolytic properties. For years Passiflora incarnate has been utilized on account of its sedative effects. Studies have pointed out these effects to be useful for numerous diseases. Among the uses that Passiflora incarnate has been proven to be practical for, many have proven that taking Passiflora incarnate can help minimize the symptoms that are linked to asthma(Sampath, 2011). Passiflora incarnate is normally less considered in treatment of asthma as compared to another plant known as valerian, but in the recent survey of common herbal sedatives in the Great Britain, the plant closely outscored valerian roots. The antispasmodic reaction of this herbal has effectively been utilized in curing bronchial asthma. It is largelyrecognized for its analgesic action. It is being utilized in North America as an analgesic with some positive effects in cases of tetanus.

The physicians in Italy have emphasized on Passiflora incarnate in the treatment of asthma and in countries like Poland it is utilized in a proprietary drug for the treatment of neurasthenia. Several species have been noted to contain betacarbolinie, and alkaloids which have antidepressant elements. The flower and fruitlet has indications of aromatase inhibitor elements only. Passiflora incarnate has an antihelminthic action and is mostly utilized in the cure of bronchitis, asthma as well as whooping cough. So as to control asthmatic warning signs, it is significant to control swelling. In effect, inflammation that is related to asthma can be described as a normal response to any kind of shock or stress, a reaction that is usually curable. However, sometimes and in most cases, asthmatic inflammation may cause severecomplications. Even though inflammation may be very excruciating for a few days, it is considered a significant part of the curative process(Yockteng, d’Eeckenbrugge, & Souza-Chies, 2011).

Passiflora incarnate tea has been utilized for bronchial asthma because of its ability of reducing inflammation which is the key symptom of asthma. Taking this tea has a calming sedative effect on the patient’s body which can reduce spasms that results to fits of coughing, wheezing as well as other issues. Passiflora incarnate tea is also known to be very effective in the treatment of anxiety, which may be a cause of the advanced stages of asthma. Prior to using Passiflora incarnate tea for asthma treatment, it is important to consult a physician to make sure that further treatment is not necessary. The aqueous leaves extract of Passiflora incarnate species demonstrated effective anti-flammatory action in the laboratory investigational model in vivo(Yockteng, d’Eeckenbrugge, & Souza-Chies, 2011). The extracts pointed to a major anti-inflammatory reaction on mice. The regular administration of Passiflora incarnate exhibited significant anti-inflammatory actions, categorized by inhibition of leukocyte influx to the pleural cavity and linked to blockage of myeloperoxide and nitricoxide in the severe model inflammation that resulted from intra pleural injection of the mice.The plant is considered very nontoxic when taken orally in amounts mostly found in food. It is not harmful when taken for a short time as medicine or as tea. Passiflora incarnate can cause some side effects on asthma patients such as dizziness, confusion or even irregular muscle action and coordination, altered consciousness as well as inflammation of the blood vessels(Miroddi et al, 2013).

Methodology

Medicinal herbs such as Passiflora incarnate are getting common in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics as well as food supplements. According to the World Health Organization about 85% of the population of the developing nations is still using traditional medicines, mainly plant drugs for their main health care needs. Herbs should always be safe but a number of unsafe and serious side effects have recently been documents.To determine the effects of Passiflora incarnate in asthma among adults, literature searches will be conducted to identify other published documents on the same subject. Other researchers on the same subject will be taken through a questionnaire to identify what they have found in relation to the subject.

Adults suffering from asthma will be defined by criteria where those with reversible airway constriction will be placed in a group separate from the patients suffering from other medical conditions in addition to their asthmatic condition. The outcome measures to be considered will include lung function parameters, symptom diaries, medication utilization as well as asthmatic events such as use of antibiotics, unplanned visits to the hospital as well as days missed from work places. Immunologicalexperiment will not be included. This research paper will focus on the lung function experiments, and the effects of Passiflora incarnate in asthmatic conditions.

Results

Random clinical trials of Passiflora incarnate preparations for the treatment of asthma will be carried out. The number of adult patients with reversible airway constriction who will react to the treatment will be noted and also those suffering from other medical conditions in addition to their asthmatic condition. The lung function parameters, symptom diaries, medication utilization as well as asthmatic events such as use of antibiotics, unplanned visits to the hospital as well as days missed from work places, of these patients will also be noted down. This will further be used to identify how effective the plant is in the cure of asthma.

Discussion

Passiflora incarnate is frequently used as an ingredient in drinks because of its good aroma. But in recent times studies have pointed out that the plant can be utilizedefficiently in the management of asthma. Passiflora incarnate tea has been utilized for bronchial asthma because of its ability of reducing inflammation which is the key symptom of asthma. Taking this tea has a calming sedative effect on the patient’s body which can reduce spasms that results to fits of coughing, wheezing as well as other issues. Passiflora incarnate is known to consist of flavonoids and alkaloid compounds including Harman, harmine, harmaline as well as harmalol(Miroddi et al, 2013).

In the past researches it has been hypothesized that the medicinal effects of the plant is derived from a combination of these elements rather than any of them when on its own. . Even though Passiflora incarnate has been shown in animal research to have sedative as well as antispasmodic side effects, researchers are not yet sure which compounds in Passiflora incarnate plant have these properties. Passiflora incarnate is thought to be very safe when taken by mouth in amounts mostly found in food. It is nontoxic when used for a short time as medicine or as tea. The plant can cause a number of side effects on asthma patients likewooziness, confusion or even unbalanced muscle reaction and coordination, altered mindfulness as well as inflammation of the blood vessels. Even though Passiflora incarnate has medicinal values, just like any other herbal medicine it should be used with caution. In particular the herb should be utilized in conjunction with the potent methotrimeprazine(Madhumathi & Rajendran, 2011).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Madhumathi, S., & Rajendran, A. (2011). Antimicrobial activity of leaf extract of passiflora incarnata L.

Miroddi, M., Calapai, G., Navarra, M., Minciullo, P. L., & Gangemi, S. (2013). Passiflora incarnata L.: ethnopharmacology, clinical application, safety and evaluation of clinical trials. Journal of ethnopharmacology150(3), 791-804.

Sampath, C., Holbik, M., Krenn, L., & Butterweck, V. (2011). Anxiolytic effects of fractions obtained from Passiflora incarnata L. in the elevated plus maze in mice. Phytotherapy Research25(6), 789-795.

Yockteng R., d’Eeckenbrugge, G. C., & Souza-Chies, T. T. (2011). Passiflora. In Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources (pp. 129-171). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

 

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