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Sample Research Paper on Health Promotion and Prevention of Diabetes

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Sample Research Paper on Health Promotion and Prevention of Diabetes

1.0 Introduction

A community health program conducted a comprehensive and thorough assessment among local healthy centers to determine health promotion components. They were allied to the effects of diabetes among the locals. Nurses and health promotion advocates affirmed the need to develop a health promotion plan for persons suffering from diabetes based on the needs assessment. According to Berger and Stenstrom, the incidences, prevalence and mortality rates of diabetes among the populations are vital in developing the plan. The assessment revealed the annual diabetes incidence rates were higher among men than women across all age groups. Conversely, prevalence rates of diabetes increases annually. This further increases the annual mortality risks significantly among diverse age groups and genders. It is however possible to increase survival rates (Berger & Stenstrom, 1999). This report therefore provides various approaches to be implemented in order to develop a health promotion plan to decrease the adverse effects of diabetes. The target population is neither specified nor limited as diabetes can be diagnosed among persons across various ages. More so, some patients are born with a pre-existing condition of the chronic disease.

1.1 Overview of the Health Promotion Plan Components

There are two kinds of diabetes, namely Type 1 and Type 2. They are however both chronic diseases affecting more than one hundred and ninety million persons globally. These include a high number of persons above forty years of age, individuals born with the chronic disease, and persons unaware they suffer from diabetes. Persons suffering from diabetes rely on support from various healthcare institutions. It is however crucial to note that, family and friends should also provide the patient with support to encourage the affected individuals lead a normal and comfortable life by managing the chronic condition (Sony, Tina & William, 2004).

Components of a health promotion plan should therefore focus on the following issues. Foremost, strategies to improve health conditions should be developed and implemented. This should involve procedures enabling community members to view ways of improving their health conditions as well as qualities of life. Effective self-care skills should also be taught among members of the community. Professional nurses with adequate information ought to engage in public awareness campaigns to encourage members of the community to adopt healthy habits. Internal and external factors including healthcare behaviors, disease situations, and perceptions regarding diabetes especially based on experiences can also encourage human beings to adopt and sustain healthy habits (Isa, Lucif & Melani, 2010).

The components of the health promotion plan should therefore be based on the following aspects. The first component should involve raising awareness among community members with sufficient information discussing how they can handle pre and post diabetic health conditions. The second component should involve a thorough description of the impacts of diabetes on human beings with relation to their health, social and economic conditions. The third component should involve health care institutions and other programs to promote and increase use of referrals to achieve lifestyle interventions. This can reduce the number of new individuals suffering from the disease. The last component should identify secure coverage of lifestyle interventions. This is especially among Medicaid beneficiaries and State employees (Isa, Lucif & Melani, 2010).

2.0 Target Population and their Health promotion needs
2.1 Goals and Objectives of the Health Promotion Plan Components

The Diabetes Training and Technical Assistance Center asserts that, people who undergo training offer lifestyle interventions. These interventions prevent people from embracing lifestyle habits increasing their prevalence to acquire diabetes. They are viable in reducing new rates as a higher number of persons recognizing and applying the interventions approaches do not acquire diabetes. The goals and objectives of the health promotion plan can therefore be classified as global and non-technical. In order to achieve the global objectives, the plan ought to apply approach reaching worldwide communities while raising awareness on diabetes as a disease (Jean, 2009).

2.1.1 Global Objectives

Mass and social media are globally used to gain knowledge on various issues affecting people on day to day basis. The plan should therefore use social media including Facebook and Twitter to supplement advertisements run across global television and radio channels. Through social media, people can learn risk factors increasing diabetes incidence rates. They can also be encouraged to undergo electronic risk assessments to determine if they unknowingly have diabetes. Adults can be globally encouraged to take a visit to their healthcare provider in order to get a blood glucose test to determine if they have diabetes. Emails, websites, blogs, and other online platforms can be utilized to promote and increase diabetes awareness. These social and mass media mediums should however provide prevention interventions using diverse languages in order to reach larger global communities. For example, the National Diabetes Prevention Program provides high quality information in several languages including English and Latin to impart health literacy among global persons. Thus, the global objective is to provide simple, clear, and viable information from medical professionals to teach people either to manage or prevent diabetes (Sarah, Gojka, Anders, Richard & Hilary 2004).

2.1.2 Non-Technical Objectives

Non-technical goals of the program include reviewing prevention and intervention programs that currently exist. The plan will assess their ability to provide educational information in relation to diabetes. This is because some of the information is existing program is either misleading or inaccurate. For example, new lifestyle changes to intervene the disease can be incorporated in the new plan. The final technical objective of the plan involves identifying viable lifestyle coaches. They should be trained to provide information persons can use as part of the diabetes intervention measures. The lifestyle coaches should be affiliated with the plan in order to enhance accountability and transparency. More so, people will be encouraged to seek their services as they will safe to meet, discuss, and learn lifestyle habits vital in preventing diabetes (DAA, 2014).

3.0 Three Health Program Objectives

The objectives of healthcare programs can be classified as realistic, measurable and time specific.

3.1 Realistic objectives

Realistic objectives in a plan are mainly associated with the cost of running program. The health promotion plan should therefore seek funding from local, State, and Federal healthcare programs allied to prevention of diabetes. For example, CMMI provides diabetes prevention programs with funds to educate communities to embrace healthy lifestyle habits. CMMI also provides Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries with healthcare services for free. It targets beneficiaries that are overweight with pre-diabetes conditions in order to intervene and prevent them from acquiring diabetes. Partnering with such a program can achieve the health promotion plan’s realistic objective to accumulate funds and achieve global goals in intervening diabetes (Diabetes Advocacy Alliance (DAA), 2014).  

In 2014, the average cost of participating in an intervention program was estimated between four and five hundred dollars. The costs can however be covered in various ways. For example, participation fee using a sliding scale can be acquired from national programs willing to sponsor the health promotion plan. Participants can also seek funding from their employers and health care providers if they promise a successful participation in the program. The success should be based on the percentages they achieve for completing various training classes. It can also be measured by the participant’s achievement to lose weight especially persons attending the health promotion plan due to their pre-diabetes conditions (DAA, 2014). 

3.2 Measurable Objectives

Measurable objectives of the health promotion plan are based on incidence and prevalence rates. A survey by the community healthcare centers revealed diabetes has no age limit. Although persons aged above forty years old are more vulnerable, some children are born with the disease. It is therefore the health promotion plan’s objective to ensure that, willing participants are neither denied nor limited due to age. It is however vital to classify the form of training and education the health promotion plan seeks to provide to the participants. As a result, persons aged above eighteen years will be grouped together based on the type of diabetes they suffer from. Thus, individuals aged eighteen years suffering from type 1 and 2 diabetes should not be clustered. More so, persons above forty years with and without pre-diabetes conditions should not receive similar coaching on lifestyle habits (DAA, 2014). 

Children should also be enrolled in the program based on the type of diabetes they suffer from. Parents willing to enroll their children aged below eighteen years in order to prevent and protect their health can also gain from the health promotion plan. Diabetes prevention programs among community schools are viable. It is however challenging to engage children in diabetes prevention and intervention studies without ascertaining the type of diabetes. The health promotion plan will therefore focus in supporting children with diabetes. It will however engage with schools to formulate and implement policies aimed at ensuring students are supplied with healthy food choices and adequate physical activities (Isa, Lucif & Melani, 2010).

3.3 Time Specific Objectives

Time specific objectives of the health promotion plan are mainly allied on how and when to serve community members. For example, the community is worried due to the increasing high risks pre-disposing people to diabetes. The community comprises of different persons from diverse ethnicities, cultures, and backgrounds. They also communicate in diverse languages. Developing a program through which the health promotion plan will visit person from a particular ethnic community especially based on the language they speak can deliver the intervention procedures successfully. More so, lifestyle coaches familiar to particular cultural requirements can be hired to engage with the community members. These plans require the program to strategize how pre-diabetes and diabetes prevention and interventions will be provided. Africa, America, Latinos, Mexicans and Hispanics require materials to educate them about diabetes. Latinos and Hispanics may however fail to understand materials authored in English. Traditional media using their local languages can be used to reach them. This will develop a level of trust encouraging them to visit local healthcare centers for testing and treatment (DAA, 2014). 

 The health promotion plan should therefore focus on the following issues in order to achieve the time specific objectives. Foremost, it should assess the distribution of healthcare institutions in the region. This will determine how community members can seek medical services. More so, the health promotion plan can develop a program through which community members can visit the healthcare centers to learn diabetes intervention and prevention (Jean, 2009).

4.0 Synthesis of the Literature
4.1 Current Findings on Evidence Based Strategies

Evidence based effective strategies to be considered in achieving the goals and objectives of the health promotion plan are diverse. Current findings indicate that, community based outreaches through churches, schools, and clinics can raise awareness on diabetes intervention and prevention. More so, materials with information on diabetes can be distributed among barbershops, supermarkets, salons, malls, and offices (Oba, Ruth, Paungphen, Pensri & Sujin, 2011).

There are effective strategies to prevent and avoid diabetes. They are mainly diet-based as they focus on lifestyle options of an individual. The health promotion plan will affirm that, loss of weight, regular physical activities, metabolic control and intake in low calorie diets can prevent diabetes. Conversely, persons diagnosed with diabetes can engage in dietary therapy to improve their blood glucose level. Counseling and cognitive behavioral therapy is therefore a viable strategy to intervene and prevent diabetes (Connor, 2003).

4.2 Roles of MSN Health Promotion

The roles of MSN promotion advocate and other inter-professional team members involved in the implementation of the health promotion plan are diverse. Foremost, they can increase physician referrals among individuals with either pre-diabetes and diabetes conditions. They can also strengthen clinical and community links through bi-directional communication programs. This will ensure community members support the use of local resource to distribute diabetes intervention and prevention informational materials. Lastly, they can help consumers, healthcare providers, insurers, and employers to correlate in order to author a brochure with information recommending community members to embrace healthy habits and seek diabetes intervention and prevention (Oba, Ruth, Paungphen, Pensri & Sujin, 2011).


5.0 References

Berger, B., & Stenstrom, G. (1999).  Incidence, Prevalence, and Mortality of Diabetes in a Large Population: A Report from the Skaraborg Diabetes. American Diabetes Association Inc. 22(5): 773-778.

Connor, H. (2003). The Dietitians Challenge: The Implementation of Nutritional Advice for People with Diabetes. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 20(1): 421-452.

Diabetes Advocacy Alliance (DAA). (2014). Healthy People 2020 Spotlight on Health Webinar: National Diabetes Prevention Program Q&A. Diabetes Advocacy Alliance Report, 1-7.

Isa, R., Lucif, A., & Melani, S. (2010). Promoting Health in Families of Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 16(1): 106-111.

Jean, I. S. (2009). An Instrument Module for SMART Goals in Diabetes Self-Management. Educational Technology Masters’ Paper.

Oba, N., Ruth, M., Paungphen, C., Pensri, C., & Sujin, R. (2011). Development of a Community Participation Program for Diabetes Mellitus Prevention in a Primary Care Unit, Thailand. Nursing and Health Sciences Journal, 13(1): 352-359.

Sarah, W., Gojka, R., Anders, G., Richard, S., & Hilary. K. (2004). Global Prevalence of Diabetes: Estimates for the Year 2000 and Projections for 2030. Epidemiology Health Services Psychosocial Research, 27(5): 1047-1053.

Sony, A., Tina, O., & William, K. (2004). Health Promotion and Health Education about Diabetes Mellitus. The Journal of the Royal Society, 124(2): 70-73.

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