Many patients suffer from non-ventilator hospital acquired pneumonia NV-HAP, which refers to the form of pneumonia that does not relate to ventilators but affects patients while in hospitals (Terpenning, 2005). Many nursing professionals have reported that NV-HAP is one area that has not been researched in in-depth. They are for the opinion that better research studies in this field would help reduce the number of patients getting this infection, save millions of shillings, and improve patient health care services. In regard to this, this paper is a critical analysis of basic nursing care used to prevent NV-HAP across the country as proposed by Quinn (2014).
According to the article, non-ventilator hospital acquired pneumonia is an area that has not been researched and present possibilities of improving patients’ life, reliable outcomes and effective saving in the health care facilities. The research study believed that this is one type of disease that has not received wider studies and has been neglected by health professionals, even though researching into it would improve patient outcomes in nursing care (Quinn, 2014). Therefore, the research aimed to identify the occurrence of NV-HAP in a selected sample of hospitals in the United States.
The study aimed to determine the rates to which oral nursing care would be reliable in reducing the spread and infection of (NV-HAP) among patients in hospitals, and to find out if the proposed nursing care methods are more effective than the normal cares provided.
A study carried out by Quinn (2014) revealed that non-ventilator hospital related pneumonia is a disease that has not been studied widely. The lack of enough research into this disease has cost severe effects in terms of patient care quality, savings and its prevention in general. However, the study shows that with proper research studies into this illness, it would be possible for hospitals to save millions of dollars and nurses would be able to provide better patient care as well as reduce the spread (NV-HAP) in various hospitals around the country.
The study found a substantive amount of unreported cases of NV-HAP in various hospitals in the United States. From the selected sample, the study reported that almost every hospital used in the research had patients suffering from NV-HAP (Terpenning, 2005). Similarly, none of these health institutions had proper and effective measures in place to prevent patients from acquiring this disease. The health professionals in these institutions agreed that the rapid spread of NV-HAP made it hard to provide better patient care, and took a toll on the hospital funds.
Studies indicate that the government requires hospitals to monitor ventilator related pneumonia, but the same institutions do not have the directive or requirement to monitor the effects of NV-HAP on their patient care activities or its effects on institutional finances. Davis and Finley (2012) state that after the study they found out that only one hospital carried out studies on the effects of NV-HAP. This study found out that NV-HAP had many hospitals in Pennsylvania and other hospitals around the country. This study further indicated that NV-HAP occurred in all types of hospitals, had higher incidences, caused more deaths and had higher cost as compared to ventilator related pneumonia. The risk factors related to NV-HAP included managed or uncontrolled pain, patients on nerve blocking medication, patient receiving central nervous system depressants and in patients found in hospitals. From the research, these factors were similar to those for ventilator related pneumonia.
On the other hand, the study by Quinn (2014) indicates that in order to prevent the spread of NV-HAP, health providers should focus on the basic nursing care methods. For example, the health providers should ensure that they have the accurate diagnosis of the disease based on the standards provided by CDC. The study suggested that nurses should educated care givers and patients on what to do and how to it, come up with protocols for health providers and patients, nurse should teach nurses, create social awareness among communities, come up with proper treatment procedures and methods of handling NV-HAP patients in hospitals and those at home (Soule & Arias, 2006). The institutions should also come up with structural procedures for measuring and recording success in this area.
The dependent variables of the study are the incidence of non-ventilator hospital acquired pneumonia and its effects on the quality of nursing care provided, and the effectiveness of nursing care in the prevention of the disease. The independent variables for this study were the effectiveness of old methods of treatment in response to the disease.
Theoretical or Conceptual Framework
The study adopted a conceptual framework that aimed to find the level of awareness and available research on NV-HAP in various hospitals around the United States. This framework consisted of methods of finding out how hospitals have taken the effects of NV-HAP and patient care into considerations. The framework also aimed at showing the relationship between the variables and clinical outcomes on patient care in the cases of NV-HAP among the selected hospitals.
The study employed a descriptive quasi-experimental design that used demonstrative comparative outcome of the collected data (Quinn, 2014). The designed was aimed at supporting the evaluation of the dependent variables, which were the incidences of NV-HAP and the effectiveness of the enhanced basic oral nursing care to reduce the spread of the disease.
The study employed a random sampling procedure that targeted all the hospitals in the country. The researcher randomly chose about ten hospitals in every state with the aim of conducting interviews to find out the rate of incidences of NV-HAP. Through surveys, and analysis of secondary materials, they would collect data to compare across different hospitals. The survey mostly targeted nurses and other health practitioners. Due to the time factor, the researchers decided to use one hospital as a reference material and gathered the rest of information from the database of United States Centers for Disease Controls (Quinn, 2014). They also carried out surveys in various hospitals in the country.
The study done by Davis and Finley (2012) together with those done earlier decided to measure the incidence of NV-HAP based on the number of admitted patients with the condition compared to those who acquired the disease after being hospitalized. To measure the dependent and independent variable, the researcher decided to conduct a pilot study of the occurrences before and after the initiation of the oral care methods both in an out of hospitals. The collected data was then compared with the data obtained in hospitals across the country as well as those that existed in the databases of the CDC. The effect of the care method was also measured based on the number of newly infected patients, the amount of money saved, and the amount of money saved by the hospitals.
The effectiveness of the intervention methods such as oral nursing care was measured based on the number of patients who suffered from the disease after the use of the preventive method compared to before (Davis & Finley, 2012). The researcher also looked at the degree to which the intervention method led to the reduction of the disease and its direct effects on the hospital funds.
Ethical issues considered during the study included preserving the dignity of the patients infected with NV-HAP and the dignity of their families.
Internal and External Validity
The validity of the study relied on the fact that the research was carried out in a real hospital that handle cases of pneumonia cases (Quinn, 2014). Hence, it was in order for the employees to participate in this study, as it would impact nursing practices in a positive way.
The data was analyzed using statistical instrument such as the number of patients admitted with NV-HAP compared to the number of clients who got the disease after being admitted in these hospitals.
The study revealed that there existed major evidence that NV-HAP was prevalent in hospitals of all types. The disease caused major deaths and had serious negative effects on the hospital funds. The researchers also established at the onset that the disease had been under studied and there was only one recorded research study. After the application of the oral nursing care and other intervention procedures, there was notable reduction in the number of infected and hospitals were able to save millions of dollars based (Terpenning, 2005). On the other hand, hospitals and nurses could use various methods such as education, collaboration, oral care, creating social awareness, and making the intervention methods easy to do in order to reduce the infection of NV-HAP among patients in various hospitals around the country.
Davis, J., & Finley, E. (2012). The breadth of hospital-acquired pneumonia: Non-ventilated versus ventilated patients in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Patient Safety Advisory. Belmont, CA: Cengage
Quinn, B. (2014). Basic nursing care to prevent Nonventilator Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia. Journal of nursing scholarship.
Soule, B. & Arias, K. (2006). The APIC/JCAHO infection control workbook. New York, NY: APIC/Joint Commission Resources
Terpenning, M. (2005). Geriatric oral health and pneumonia risk. Aging and Infectious Diseases. New York, NY: Sage