I was involved in the development of a clinical teaching plan on heparin infusion. This was a teaching session that I was to conduct from the theoretical and practical perspective. The teaching session was conducted in a conference room that was adjacent to a surgical unit. In addition, the room was equipped with different teaching material such as a white board, pens, infusion pumps, articles that could be used to demonstrate the ways to conduct heparin infusion. In addition, the room was also equipped with PowerPoint presentation materials such as a computer and a projector. Using Gibb’s reflective cycle I shall provide an elaborate description of the session. This will include description, feelings, evaluation, analysis, and the development of a conclusion and the development of an action plan (Gibbs, 1988). This will be followed by an analysis of learner outcomes and the areas of improvements.
The presentation was conducted in a conference room attached to my workplace and in attendance were 30 junior registered nurses (RNs) individuals who are my work colleagues. The main objective of this teaching session was to educate junior RNs on how to perform heparin fusion procedure safety and confidently at clinical settings. The session was subdivided into two, with the first session being a detailed description of a case study about one of the patients under my care, the session was largely theoretical. The second part of the session was the practical aspect of demonstrating heparin fusion and the importance of this clinical procedure in the nursing field. In addition, during this session I was also able to draw information from existing literature to support my actions and demonstrations. The second session was concluded by questions from the audience. There were however, setbacks during the sessions such as delay of the audience to enter the conference room and the inability of the audience to settle in time for the session to begin. Despite this setback, I was able to complete the session within 55 minutes and this allowed for adequate time for interaction between different members of the audience. I was also able to receive some feedback from the audience concerning different aspects of heparin infusion and feedback on my presentation.
Focusing on my experience from the session, there were numerous factors that affected my ability to deliver my proposed learning style in the most effective and efficient manner to facilitate some form of judgments on the learner outcomes (Kassirer, 2010). One of the major setbacks to my approach to learning was the size of the conference room. The small size of the room was a hindrance in facilitating effective learning. There was some feeling of congestion, which led to discomfort among the learners. Despite the existence of proper ventilation in the room, audience spacing limited the movement of the audience hence an impediments to their ability to engage in effective learning. In addition, it was also relatively difficult for learners to engage in an effective discussion forum considering that the size of the room only allowed for a specific sitting arrangement hence limiting the ability of the audience to engage other participant in an elaborate and an effective discussion forum session. This complication was however solved by the decision to engage in an open discussion forum outside the conference room. This allowed me to interact with different participants on a face-to-face basis. Inasmuch as it allowed for easy interaction, it also provided limited chances of the participants that I was unable to reach out to most of the participants and this limited the amount of feedback that I could get.
One of the objectives of this presentation was to achieve an all-inclusive approach to learning where the lecturer and the audience could equally participate in the learning process irrespective of their learning experience (Stuart, 2013). This was facilitated by the use of simple language and the definition of complex medical terminologies to ensure an easy understanding. In addition, it was also an approach was to deviate from normal lecture sessions which are often aimed at the transmission of information from the lecturer to the audience instead of facilitating a learning process that requires active participation from both the lecturer and the learner (O’Connor, 2015). One way by which I was able to realize this learning objective was by introducing a question answer session at the end of the presentation. During this session learners were required to ask question relate to the presentation with the expectation that answers would be provided by anyone in the room. In addition, during the practical demonstration of heparin infusion, I was able to involve a few members of the audience as a way of facilitating learning. Furthermore, the discussion forum that allowed for the interaction among learners outside the room was also essential in facilitating a learning process hence minimizing the existence of any discrepancies between the teaching theories in the learning process and learner outcomes, which were the main objectives of the presentation (Stuart, 2013).
During the presentation, I was able to incorporate different teaching methodologies. This included the lecture-based presentation, an in-depth analysis of practical clinical scenarios, demonstration of heparin infusion, and provision of question-answer and discussion form sessions. This was an approach, which was aimed at encouraging learners to utilize these teaching methods to acquire the intended information and skills. In addition, through the inclusion of different teaching methods, it was easier to realize learner outcomes (Gaberson et al, 2015).
Experiential learning theory proved to be essential in the development of an effective understanding of the concepts that were integral in the understanding of the overall objective of the study (Miller & Rollnick, 2013). Heparin infusion can be understood from both the theoretical and practical perspective. This means that the practical aspect of learning was to reinforce the theoretical component learnt during the first part of the presentation (Sagar, 2014). This approach towards learning has the ability to provide learners with an opportunity of developing knowledge on different aspects (Cannon & Boswell, 2012). The session that involved the audience, especially that which was focused on the practical demonstration of heparin infusion was effectively enjoyed by all the participants. During this session, the audience had the ability to identify with the main objective of the session, develop a link between the session and this prior knowledge on the subject matter (Walsh, 2014). The discussion forums were also essential in the promotion of a pragmatic learning process. This is because during this process audience drawn from different wards of the hospital was able to engage in an interactive session aimed at providing relevant and additional information of the subject matter (Smith et al, 2015).
Because this was an adult class, the adult learning theory was an essential approach to understanding and facilitating the learning process. According to this theory, adult learners often engage in learning that proves to be instrumental in improving their knowledge base (Titmus, 2014). This means that prior to their involvement in any learning process; adults have the responsibility of identifying the relevance of the subject that they are to learn (Levin & Feldman, 2012). This is in line with the tensest of the expectancy-value theory, which aims at motivating adults to identify different aspects that they need to achieve during a learning session (Bulman & Schutz, 2013). One way by which I was able to demonstrate to the learners the essence of participatory learning was through the provision of practical sessions for learners to assert their levels of understanding heparin infusion. This was also a demonstration of the essence of expectancy learning theory, adult learning theory, expectancy-value theory and different learning styles in the development of a teaching and a lesson plan (Bulman & Schutz, 2013).
The expectancy-value theory was not only an approach aimed at motivating the adults into engaging in the learning process, it was also aimed at proving these learners with some form of relevance of the subject of discussion in the nursing field (Johnson, 2013). The first session of the presentation was dedicated to theoretical understanding of the concept of heparin infusion; the value of this approach to the learning process was in the ability of the learners to relate to different clinical scenarios (Wang, 2010). The establishment of an expectancy of success for this presentation was realized through practical demonstration of the heparin infusion process. For attentive learners the essence of expectancy-value theory was founded on their ability to attend and develop a feeling that some form of learning had taken place through active engagement in the entire process (Oermann, 2015).
The design of the structure of the presentation was also facilitated by the learning cycle. This structure provided a platform for incorporating different strategies and theoretical approaches that could facilitate the realization of learner outcomes (Gallo & Smith, 2015) In addition, it was also a platform that could be used in the development of a framework to emphasis on the importance of appraisals, an elaborate assessment of the teaching session and the essence of feedback (Urdan & Karabenick, 2010). This is because such a framework would be essential in the determination of the objectives of any teaching process in the future. The use of a learning cycle was therefore important because it facilitates an easier way of identifying learner outcomes; while at the same time facilitating the process of developing an effective teaching plan that was all inclusive of different approaches and teaching styles that could facilitate the learning process (Gallo & Smith, 2015) The learning process also provided an understanding that effective appraisals, assessments and feedbacks could be realized if they were not only conducted at the end of the teaching sessions but also during the session. This could be made possible through an analysis of the type and quality of the questions from the learners and their reactions to different questions (Gallo & Smith, 2015) The essence of the feedback, assessments and appraisal tool in the process of conducting a teaching session were apparent when I attempted engage in a formal reflection of the session at its end. This was an indication that I had failed to engage in a full and an elaborate exploitation of the learning cycle in the improvement of my ability to deliver an effective lecture. My reflection on the essence of the learning cycle in any teaching session has provided me with an insight of the techniques that I can use in the future to minimize my ability commit more mistakes in the future
Other than an elaborate engagement of theoretical approaches and the use of multiple learning approaches, one of the major areas of strength in the entire presentation was the use of a PowerPoint presentation. The slides facilitated my ability to emphasis on the major concepts and other defining features. In addition, through this approach it was also easier to define complex medical terminologies in ways that all the learners could understand (Wilson & Wittmann-Price, 2014). The ability to directly show learners the theoretical aspect of heparin infusion using charts and diagrams as part of the presentation functions as an effective strategy in preparing learners for the practical session. The use of slides during the teaching session was also a demonstration of my ability to understand the concept and develop a flowing presentation on the subject matter (Thompson & Kilgallon, 2013).
The major area of weakness in this presentation was the small size of the lecture room. Inasmuch as it drew learners closer in ways that could facilitate interpersonal communication, there was limited space that could allow for all learners to engage in the practical session. An additional area of weakness was the insufficient time, which could not allow for adequate presentation of the subject matter (Sawin et al, 2010). Presentation on heparin infusion involves discussion on different medical jargons that require sufficient time to internalize and practice. This meant that there was need for more time and a relatively larger conference room to ensure that relevance of the sessions in terms of the learner outcomes were realized in a more effective and efficient manner (Wilson & Wittmann-Price, 2014).
There were also areas for improvement in the future sessions. One of the areas was the allocation and the utilization of the allocated time. This means that during the planning sessions it will be important to determine the number of slides to use and the type of information to give in an audience that contains Junior RNs with the same level of experience (Oermann & Gaberson, 2014). The time allocated therefore determines the possibility that the teacher will customize his presentation to meet the objectives of the expected audience. While customizing the presentation, it is also important to understand the type of audience that is expected. This will determine the types of definition and the language that will be used during the presentation (Yonge et al, 2011).
The number of audience expected to attend the session must also be accurately predicted. This will determine the choice of the conference room that is to be used during the presentation. In addition, it will also provide the teacher with the ability to identify the best approach that can be used in dividing the session. This is because irrespective of the size of the audience, the room that is to be used must spacious enough to allow for free movements especially during discussion and practical sessions (Levin & Feldman, 2012).
It would also be important for the session to include practical session. This is because the session was about clinical practice, which requires the learners to gain hands on experience on matters related to heparin fusion. Through practical sessions, it will be easier to develop kinesthetic learners (Cannon & Boswell, 2012).
An in-depth reflection of the entire teaching session provides an understanding that there was adequate use of different learning and teaching styles which were essential in the determination of the ability of the participants to understand the concepts and engage in a fruitful learning process. Despite the perceived success, the presentation was affected by among other factors the availability of limited time to ensure effective explanation of the concepts and the demonstration of the practical components (Dodd & Flowers, 2012). In addition, the conference room was relatively smaller hence limiting the ability of the learners to engage in a practical learning session. The use of a learning cycle to record effective feedback was essential in determining the areas of weaknesses and the possible strategies that can be used to minimize the possibility of reoccurrence. I have been able to engage in a process of identifying the possible theoretical assumptions and strategies that could be beneficial in my future presentations.
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