Continuous professional development (CPD) has been described by many as the process of advancing professional skills and knowledge through participating in a continuous educational and training program. Its aim is to cultivate the medical practitioners in their professional knowledge, skills and abilities (Thornbory 204). It is a multipurpose education training that is applicable to the area of clinical care, which aims at expanding the doctor’s expert knowledge, skills and abilities. Continuous professional development has made a very important advance in Medicine and it has continued to improve the care unit, its implementation has made doctors and health workers to learn the new procedures, treatments and clinical concepts that can advance the quality and safety of care offered to patients (Abbott & Helen 174).
Since the establishment of continuing professional development in health care, therapeutic profession has acknowledged the significance of the education, this is an essential feature of its professional and fundamental integrities principle. The current years are branded with hastening pace of modification, growing complexity, growth in information and increasing expectation from the society, it important that doctors and health workers are supported in their continuing training from school to retirement (Francis 539). This way, doctors will be capable of applying the advantageous product of training, hence developing and enhancing their medical performance. In addition, continuing professional development plays a role in improving the excellence in the clinical system. This is through nurturing the doctor’s consciousness on the importance for, and to accomplish improved healthcare (Lee 390). Doctors are in a position to device beneficial variations to the value, competence and effectiveness of healthcare. This generally advances the nature of care given to the sick.
How CPD Will Lead To Increasing Quality of Care
Quality improvement in healthcare does not mean making things enhanced by repeating the same things and trying it harder, quality upgrading necessitates a dissimilar approach to the traditional ones and requires a new set of knowledge and skills to exercise the approach. For the purpose of quality, Continuing Professional Development program brings with it scanning and training in quality improvement explicitly intended to teach health professionals about procedures and knowledge that can be used to advance quality in care unit (Hegney 142). Continuing professional development can improve quality of care by creating an attitude of continuous reflection and an obligation to ongoing improvement (Thornbory 204). Its intentions is to provide medical doctor and administrators with the skill and knowledge required to evaluate the performance of the medical system, personalities and individuals requirements so as to comprehend the gap between current practice and the best practice and to equip them with tools and confidence to design a way of reducing the crack (Nalle, Wyatt & Myers 101).
Currently major progresses in health care continue to upgrade. The implementation of CPD on health practitioners to learn the new procedures, treatment and medical concepts can enhance the standard and safety of health care provided to patients. Ever since its establishment, the therapeutic profession has acknowledged the importance of education noting it as the back bone of proficiency and ultimate ethical principle (Richards & Potgieter 41). It is important that nurses are supported in their continuing professional education from medical school to retirement. Attention should be given to practitioner’s work environment to guarantee it is supportive of learning on the job. This will encourage the health practitioners to mirror on and learn from matters directly relevant to their clinical practice. In addition, the health practitioner should take part in clinical activities outside their working place, such as learning through online programs, group learning and clinical sessions (DeSilets & Dickerson 100).
The Effects of Extra Knowledge on the Quality of Care
Extra knowledge increases the quality of care by developing a framework for the future healthcare amenities; it demonstrates a positive effect on patient care by giving information supporting a proven based patient care as well as therapy choice, guiding service development decisions, information assigning decision and supporting recommendation (Evans 615). Continuing Professional Development is an educational means by which health practitioners guarantee that they uphold the enhancement of clinical competence and medical performance. It integrates and goes beyond Continuing Medical Education (CME). It is a moral and professional obligation of every practicing practitioner to ensure that medical care they provide for patients is safe and based on applicable scientific evidence. In order to accomplish this every health practitioner must engage actively in Continuing Professional Development relevant to their clinical field (Lazarus et al 105).
International Policy That Encourages CPD in Nursing
In most countries there are no policies guiding mandatory CPD, it is generally considered an obligation of the professional associations and the practitioner’s initiative. However, some countries in Latin America have policies regarding professional training provided by professional associations. Argentina’s medical societies have been responsible for providing of CPD at the same time the medical schools in the country are beginning to offer better degree on the same (Lawton & Wimpenny 42; Hogston 587). In Mexico there are boards that require a mandatory CPD for the affiliates to maintain specialty certification. Furthermore many private hospitals and clinics require practitioners employed to participate in CPD programs. This is considered unavoidable in the Mexican government. In Southwest Asia, the Abu Dhabi Health Authority in United Arab Emirates needs practitioners to achieve at least 60 hours of training annually for the renewal of their license, of which 30 hours must be formal education from accredited medical school.
Intensive Care Unit Nurse
The nursing Council’s Post Registration Education and Practice standards (PREPS) requires medical professionals to embark on educational activities related to their practice before they can renew their registration. In backing this need, nursing in practice continuing professional development zone has been formed to contribute in meeting the set standards especially the ICU nurses (Morphet & Holden 189). Continuing Professional Development is very important to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) nurses. It enhances their knowledge and skill in the operation of new equipment and the new ways of treating the ICU patients with the dynamic revolution in technology (Burton & Graham 39). In the Intensive Care Unit people are constantly being taken care of and examined by a specialized team. A round the clock checkup is provided to the patient and each patient is assigned to his or her own nurse making it important for nurses to be engaged in constant training to provide quality care for the patients and this can only be achieved through CPD (Morphet & Holden 192).
In the long run it is the patients who gain from the participation of the medical doctors in continuous professional development through the enhancement of quality and safety of health care (James & Francis 132; Guardini et al 281). Patients also gain from better accessibility of medical training material by being able to access and learn about their personal well-being, ailment and treatment. Improving the role of practitioners in satisfaction for, and communication with their patients would further improve the knowledge (Beatty 205). CPD is critical in conveying the finest possible services and applying it to maximum aids of the patient, providing support and evidence of medical authority. By implementing a constant approach through CPD scheme will ensure that practitioner’s knowledge and expertise keep pace with the new intelligence and procedures (Wood 125; Wood 12).
National- MOH Exam
MOH exams are examination given to health professional who seek to work in the United Arab Emirates in order to qualify for health job. Categories of professions who must undergo MOH examination include; physician and dentists, pharmacists and assistants, nurses and midwives, technicians, practitioners and technicians of the complementary and alternative. The test is challenging in a way since there is no particular syllabus, the practitioner has to prepare as per specialty (Burton & Graham 188). The test is done two times annually in English, and consists of three sections: on paper exam, hands-on and viva. A candidate has to pass the first section which is the written exam in order to qualify for the other two sections. Correspondingly, a specialist applicant must pass viva exam to succeed for the practical (Dickerson 100).
Policy about Master Degree – International
The master degree international for health and social management prepares practitioners for the needs of the future oriented fieldwork where an understanding of the need of an improved health care unit is essential. The demand for competent persons in the health sector is continuously rising. Across European Union, health and related policies are becoming linked more than ever before, with increasing movement of people, patients and professionals (Richards L, Potgieter 42). The increased linkage has raised numerous policy concerns, as well as quality and access in the services, information requirement for the people, patients, health practitioners, policy makers and to reconcile national policy with the European Union in general.
International council of nurses have acknowledged the need for an advanced specialists in nursing who have a proficient knowledge base, multifaceted decision making skill and medical competencies for prolonged practice. The traits of which are shaped by the country which they are credentialed to exercise (Price 29). A master’s degree is well thought-out to be the commended entry level for advanced practice.
Policy that Makes CPD
The policy that guides CDP program are very relevant, CPD should be prospective, flexible and individually organized yet open to noble group inspection and it should be accurately resourced for time and expenditures (Burton & Graham 89). The important aspect of the policy is to ensure that affiliates give information regularly about how they achieve their CPD requirements and what should be done to make it better (Ryan 499). It is inspiring that the number of practitioners who register and those sending returns so that they have good certification for appraisal portfolios is increasing, but there are a good number who register for CPD but do not submit their returns (Smith 23). The new policy provides a way of engaging with the practitioners as well as making the program much more detailed and user friendly for all candidates who are registered on the program.
Continuing professional development cycle entails training, identifying learning requirements, prearranging and participating in appropriate educational activities and reflecting on the worth of those activities. It is clear that maintenance of medical proficiency and knowledge relys on regular training and revision practices. In addition, what is not clearly proven from the finding is the condition desirable for effective Continuing Professional Development program (Chipchase, Johnston & Long 90). In addition, the availability at CPD conferences does not ensure that one is learning and when valuation is done it can result in the maintainance of competence. The reviewed policy intends to emphasize on enhancing the learning objectives as part of the CPD yearly cycle, ensuring that the structure is not only retained but reinforced through acknowledgment for time and activity and that online learning is encouraged ensuring practitioners do not feel omitted (Burton & Graham 89).
The number of hours needed for compliance with the policy is maintained as fifty. A significant modification in the internal or external classification is done to give moral practical differences between medical, educational and professional activities. The CPD policy gives guidance to all psychiatrists, consultants, doctors, medical officers and all professions linked to health services. To guarantee that practitioners are taking part in formal CPD activities that satisfy high quality standards, a quality reassurance system based on accreditations of Continuing Professional Development events and authentication of providers must be put into law (Burton & Graham 90; Drey, Gould & Allan 742). There is necessity for appropriate guideline of formal CPD activities, all the institutions that provide Continuing Professional Development activities must adhere to the policies that ensure it is free from any form of bias. There must be a strong affirmation by stakeholders and lecturers of any possible or actual conflict of interest and clearness regarding financing of training activities.
Challenges Faced During CPD
Identifying the obstacles to CPD has cropped a serious discussion in the literature. A study investigating barriers have included national state-wide research examining the obstacles to nurses participating in CPD program. Other researches have looked at barriers associated with nurses engaging in CPD in rural and remote areas (Schweitzer & Krassa 443). Insufficient time and finance have been the greatest barricades that negatively impact on health worker’s ability to access Continuing Professional Development program. Cuts in the training budget and scarcity of professors cover the activities makes it tough to release supervisors to engage in the program (Halton, Fred & Margaret 77). A study shows that workshops were personally financed by the health practitioners (Gibbs 20). Moreover, the attendances at these programs were taken at their own time, during the weekends or during their annual leave. In a study in the UK, which consist of 206 health practitioners showed that shortage of workers to cover study leave and shortage of organizational support were emphasized by applicants as a blockage in accessing Continuing Professional Development program. It has been noted that walls to access CPD were contributed by working hours, travel fee, accommodation and time away from work and kinfolk. Lack of technology to education, such as e-learning and staff not encouraged to participate in CPD has also been a challenge in implementing the program to all practitioners (Kataoka-Yahiro & Mobley 127)
The lack of suitable and available specialized education is among the major frustrating reports by nurses who engage in CPD. Lack of transport or absence of nearly education providers for Continuing Professional Development, particularly those in countryside and remote localities are unable to engage in the training (Penz 41; Penz et al 58). The need for suitable Continuing professional development, specifically clinical related learning being an important matter for nurses. Presently there is a shortage of CPD which includes resources for various learning techniques. An appropriate Continuing Professional Development should include consideration of generational changes in learning style.
Continuing Professional Development is very important ingredient for a fruitful health care system. The ongoing establishment prospects to uphold, update and enhancing the understanding, skills and attitudes of professionals that can lead to an upgraded health care practices and health outcome for the public. The Continuing professional Development programs should be prearranged, funded, conveyed and assessed in an active manner. Implementation of the program will make the patient, staff and organizations to feel the value from CPD as it results in augmented information and skill for health practitioners, reducing waiting time for patients and motivated labor force for the organization. Lack of the program can result to compromised patient safety, lack of staff due to hiring and maintenance concerns and challenges for organizations in meeting the procedures. To achieve this, all the challenges must be dealt with. Alternative financing sources and apparent connections with medical institutes should be providing access to unexploited resources. Being an all-time apprentice is an important character for any medical practitioner and this century is giving a challenge and chance in accomplishing and maintaining the exclusive character. Interest in and support for the model of Continuing Professional Development is mounting. A study of fruitful employment in the United States of America and other states now exist.
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