Sample Coursework Paper on Nursing Shortage in Mental Health Care

Task A

Article Wright, P. D., & Bretthauer, K. M. (2010). Strategies for Addressing the Nursing Shortage:

Coordinated Decision Making and Workforce Flexibility. Decision Sciences41(2), 373-401. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5915.2010.00269.x

Background Information The studies by the National Center for Health Workforce Analysis assert that more than 30% of the positions in the nursing facilities will be unfilled. This is because this professional area is no longer of interest to the majority of students in the medical fields, and those already in the profession are contemplating the best strategies to advance and leave for other jobs within the medical field. Nurses in the field have cited undefined working schedules and overtime as the possible reasons for the reduction of motivation in nursing. It is important that the government and other stakeholders within the industry develop procedures through which they can ensure that challenges contributing to the shortage of nurses are addressed. The major areas of concern are the development of strategies that can ensure the development of some form of coordination between the management and the nursing staff. Through such coordination, it will be relatively easier for the management to identify the prevailing problems and involve external and internal processes that can be used in identifying the best solutions.

The use of external coordination can help the management in the development of workable schedules considering that such coordination efforts are motivated by the existing legislations that facilitate the reduction of scheduled overtime. In addition, through the provision of better remuneration packages and work life balance, it will be possible for the management to ensure that the employees are motivated to work and achieve both the organizational and personal objectives.

Review of Literature In this section, the authors of this article journal cite 20 articles, books, journals, and publications. The main objective is to provide information concerning the relationship between employee flexibility and the coordination efforts by the management. The articles cited in this journal are relatively out of date in terms of their years of publication. The nursing profession is dynamic and this explains why the use of articles published between 1972 and 2005 may not give accurate information regarding the status of the nursing profession in the contemporary society. Despite this setback, it is possible to argue that the information provided in this article is still relevant in understanding the problem of nursing shortage in mental healthcare. This is because through the article, the author gives a historical approach to the problem and the techniques that have been used in addressing the problem overtime. The main topic addressed through this review is the essence of flexibility in nursing. The authors argue that it is the responsibility of the management to identify those who are considered flexible and use this attribute while developing work schedules to minimize the possibility of work overload. In addition, such a process will also provide the management with a technique of identifying the best approach through which it can provide more training to the flexible group of employees to ensure that they are able to multitask.

 

Methodology The study employs a qualitative approach as the methodology of data collection. Through this process, the study was able to answer questions related to analysis and generation of sense in unstructured data.

The subtype is grounded theory through which the study envisioned to develop a theory concerning the problem of nursing shortage in mental healthcare. The theories of coordinated scheduling and adjustment models were used to provide an understanding of the prevailing situation in the nursing sector and the best possible solutions.

 

Data Analysis The study employs the use of descriptive statistics in the analysis of data. Through this approach, the study presents algorithms to generate solutions to the theoretical approaches that characterized the data collection process. The coordination scheduling approach, for instance, is considered necessary in generating solutions for each coordination strategy between the management and the employees. Through the algorithms, the model is used in the determination of the numbers of nurses needed to complete a specific schedule, their level of expertise, and expected motivations. The provision of solutions through coordinated efforts provides the essence of the algorithm in the development of the best possible strategies towards the generation of solutions to the problem of nursing shortage. The study also uses abstraction of phenomenon to understand the relationship between the proposed solutions to the problem and their efficiency in the development of the workforce.
Conclusion The management in the nursing profession has the responsibility of addressing the problem of nursing shortage in mental health care. This is possible through coordinated efforts between the internal and the external stakeholders in the industry. Through these efforts, the management will facilitate the process of an all-inclusive platform for the generation of the best possible solutions in handling the problem of unstructured work schedule and overtime. The external players, such as the government and nursing agencies, will provide information from a legal perspective while the internal players will provide solutions from the prevailing circumstances within the organization. Scheduled preferences and demands from the patients comprise some of the most essential aspects in the determination of employee workload and schedule of work. This must however be determined through a consultative approach on the skills and abilities of employees.
Assessment of evidence

According to the evidence presented in the assessment of the five parts, it is the responsibility of the management in the nursing profession to address challenges related to the problem of nursing shortage. This evidence is valid considering that the management with reference to the law has the power to create and amend policies on how to improve the working conditions of the nurses. The evidence is in agreement with the conclusion that it is the responsibility of the management to address the problem of nursing shortage, as this will be an indication of high level of commitment. The determination of the schedules of the employees must be in agreement with the levels of flexibility of the employees and the available working hours.

Ethical issues

A process of gathering information from existing literature characterized the research. The process of determining objective publications could have been affected by the subjective attitude of the researcher on the issues of nursing shortage, hence affecting the findings of the study. In the process of collecting data, it was possible for the researcher to develop subjective feelings towards the sentiment provided by the nurses threatening the objectivity of the study.

Type of research

The study embraces a qualitative approach in the process of collecting data. This is enabled by the availability of existing literature that provides information regarding the attitudes of different agencies and employees in the nursing profession on the factors facilitating an increase in shortage of the nursing population. Through a comparative approach to the collection of qualitative data, it was possible to address the problem of nursing shortage from different cultural and professional backgrounds.

Other Types of Research

The study could have embraced quantitative research using structured questionnaires to collect data on the grievances of the nursing profession. The use of questionnaires would have required sampling of the target population and an administration of questionnaires through an interview process. This could have helped in the collection of updated information concerning the shortage in nursing. The use of comparative studies in collecting quantitative data would have been beneficial if the researcher sampled populations from different countries and societies.

Task B- Literature analysis: the problem of nursing shortage in the mental healthcare

The problem of nursing shortage in mental health care is associated with the frequency in ethical dilemmas that often confront this group of professionals. This in the view of Hamaideh (2014) has been cited as the reason for the high levels of moral distress. Moral distress arises when the professionals are aware of that which is expected of them but the prevailing institutional conditions make it impossible to pursue the right course of action. Whenever the nursing fraternity feels the presence of such constraints, it affects their levels of motivation and satisfaction hence creating some form of psychological disequilibrium and the development of negative feelings towards the profession (Hamaideh, 2014).

The prevailing ethical issues in the nursing profession can also be cited as major contributing factors to the shortage of nurses in mental healthcare. According to Eren (2013) nursing as an occupation is heavily dependent on human relationships to ensure the realization of professional objectives. It is important for the management to ensure that polices directed towards nursing care are directed towards the protection of the ethical role of the nurses. This can only be realized through the reduction of unnecessary workload and the improvement of working conditions. Failure by the management may result in a reduction in the number of medical professional interested in the field (Eren, 2013).

For professionals to realize the objectives and goals of their work, it is important that they operate in an environment that is characterized by the availability of the necessary tools and equipment. This not only affects the ability of the patients to access medical attention but also affects the level of motivation among the nurses to execute their responsibilities. According to Nankivell et al (2013), nurses form the largest population of medical service providers. However, over the years, this profession has been facing a decline in its population, especially in the provision of services to patient with serious mental illnesses. This drop has been attributed to the dynamic nature of the mental illness and the inability of the medial institutions to provide facilities to address these challenges (Nankivell et al, 2013).

The environment of work is considered one of the major determinants of the level of interest towards a specific profession. Factors, such as workplace violence and occupational stress have been cited as major contributors to the shortage of nurses, especially in the mental health care (Magnavita, 2014). The process of determining the effects of these factors is highly elated to the association between employees and the management, and the relationship between employees and the patient. It is important for the management to consider the best possible strategy through which they can ensure that employees in this sector are protected from the reactions of the patients. In addition, through the human resource management, it is important to determine the level by which the employee interests can be addressed to increase on the possibility of attracting and retaining more nurses (Magnavita, 2014).

It is the responsibility of the management to motivate medical students to join nursing in mental healthcare. Clinical placements in mental health care affect the attitudes and confidence of medical students in mental health settings (Happell & Platania- Phung, 2012). Placement shortages, for instance, have often created discussions on the techniques through which the management in the nursing sector ensures that there are sufficient experience to be gained by those deployed in different mental healthcare settings. Any form of discrimination in this sector will not only affect the interest of the medical students towards the profession but also reduce the population of students interested in the nursing fraternity (Happell & Platania- Phung, 2012).

Professional development trainings have been cited s major contributors in the development of a workforce. Nurses are considered as the largest population in the medical sector. This means that for any professional development trainings often generate numerous logistical and financial challenges (Eriksen et al, 2014). These challenges have been considered as major contributors to the reduction of the population of nurses especially in the mental health care sector. Professionals in the medical sector have often opted to get involved in other medical field that attracts few personnel hence making professional development training relatively possible. It is important to develop strategies on how to intergrate continuous learning with the activities of nurses in the mental healthcare (Eriksen et al, 2014). Through such initiatives, it will be relatively easier to incorporate challenges that affect the medical fraternity and the best possible solutions to these problems. In addition, this will also provide a platform on which nurses can reflect and suggest on the best possible areas for training (Eriksen et al, 2014).

The success of physical health care for those suffering from mental illnesses can only be realized through the provision of the necessary facilities and expertise. It is important to note that the provision of medical facilities and appropriate skills from the nursing fraternity are mutually related. This decrease in the population of the nurses can be attributed to the availability of ineffective facilities to address the challenges of those suffering from mental illnesses. According to Happell et al (2013), sufficient facilities contribute to the effectiveness and the efficiency of mental healthcare. In situations where the facilities are absent or ineffective, it becomes relatively complicated for the nurses to realize their employment responsibilities. This decreases the possibility that more students in the medical filed will be encouraged to join the profession (Happell et al, 2014).

The shortage of professional nurses in mental health care is attributable to the unavailability of sufficient experts to train nurses. This is attributable to low remuneration rate from the academic facilitators in this field (Nardi et al, 2013). The development of solutions towards this problem is attributable to redirection of the strategies towards the academic field (Nardi et al, 2013). This means that it is important to develop legislations that target the provision of quality education in institutions of higher learning (Wright et al, 2006). High levels of education are perceived as contributing factors to the quality of medical care in mental health care. In addition, the legislations must be focused towards the provision of solutions to the problem of adequate remuneration (Wright et al, 2006).

While addressing the problem of nursing shortage it would be important to assess the contributing factors that enhance the intentions of the existing nurses in the profession to leave. This is because despite the popularity of nursing shortage in the world, failure to provide appropriate solutions could impact negatively on the provision of quality mental health care services (Chan et al, 2013). Through the process of understanding the reasons for departure, it would be easier to develop sound strategies. These strategies will be based on the best ways to retain the nurses and increase the levels of efficiency of the nursing fraternity. Other than retention, it will also be easier to develop policies that encourage more students in the medical field to take up nursing courses (Chan et al, 2013).

Irrespective of the cultural backgrounds on the society, it is important to note that the causes of shortages are multi-faceted and they include factors such as resource constraints, inadequate workforce, and poor recruitment and retention strategies. These factors are not unique to one location but to different societies depending on the prevailing factors (Buchan & Aiken, 2008). The development of an approach towards an effective skills mix and the utilization of these skills often form an essential part in ensuring that there some order in the nursing profession (Buchan & Aiken, 2008). Failure to recognize the role of skill mix increases the possibility of role duplication and confusion hence decreasing the efficiency of the nursing sector. The process of acquiring and retaining more experts in nursing is often facilitated by the development of a coordinated package of stargazes that provide long-term and sustainable solutions (Buchan & Aiken, 2008).

 

Evidence-Based Practice Matrix of Ten Pieces of Primary Research on One Topic Related to Nursing
Authors Resource/

Database

Year of Publication Research Type Population/

Sample Size

Outcome Variables Measured Pertinent Data from Results Author’s Suggested Conclusions Comments
Eren EBSCO 2014 Quantitative research- descriptive and cross-sectional 202 The relevance of ethical beliefs in attitudes of nurses There is need for more education for the nurses on employee ethics There is need for large-scale research on mental health nursing especially on the effects ethics on nurses This article provides information on the contributory role of mental health ethics on employee satisfaction
Hamaideh EBSCO 2014 Quantitative- descriptive correlation, cross-sectional design 200 The role of moral distress in employee satisfaction Moral distress contributes to dilemma in the activities of the nurses It is important to address factors contributing to high moral distress to minimize the possibility of nursing shortage The article provides an insight on the essence of promoting employee freedom and their ability to act according to the law
Happel & Platania-Phung EBSCO 2008 Quantitative research 66 To determine the effectiveness of clinical placements Non- discriminative clinical placements contribute to efficiency of nurses There is need to improve on the levels of effectiveness in clinical placements The article provides relevant information on the role of placement officers in boosting the image of nursing
Chan, Tam, Lung, Wong & Chau EBSCO 2013 Qualitative research- literature review 31 articles Factors necessitating the intentions by nurses to leave the profession There are organizational and individual factors contributing to nursing shortage Availability of other job opportunities and the desire for personal growth necessitate nursing shortage The article provides an insight on the possible strategies that can be employed to reduce the shortage
Nankivell, Happell & Scot EBSCO 2013 Quantitative and qualitative research 38 Contributing factors to low access of services by patients with serious mental illness Ineffective facilities contribute to inefficiency of nurses in the provision of mental health care services There is need to institute mechanisms on how to improve working conditions in mental health care The article provides evidence on how poor working conditions contribute to shortage of nurses.
Nardi, & Gyurko EBSCO 2013 Qualitative research- systematic review 62 publications The contribution of nursing faculty to nursing shortage Reduction in the number of qualified experts in nursing faculty contributes to low population of nurses There is need for better motivations to be introduced in the nursing faculty to attract more professionals The article provides an overview of the role of the nursing faculty in the shortage of nurses
Eriksen, Dahl, Karlsson& Arman EBSCO 2014 Quantitative research- focus group discussions 8 The essence of professional development in addressing nursing shortage Professional development motivates nurses since it guarantees personal and professional growth There is need for the management to ensure the existence of constant trainings to motivate nurses The article provides an overview on the role of professional development training in reducing nursing shortage
Griffith EBSCO 2012 Qualitative research- systematic review Nursing shortage and the role of the leadership Economic, political and social factors affect the delivery of health care services It is important for the leadership to plan on the recruitment and selection of nurses The article provides an overview of the role of nursing leadership in reducing nursing shortage
Wright, Bretthauer & Cote EBSCO 2006 Qualitative The role of the law in managing nursing shortage Adherence to laws in the development of policies will minimize the possibility of exploitation among nurses It is important that the management and the legislature to provide laws and policies that protect nurses The article provides an assessment on the role of the law in mitigating nursing shortage
Wright, Bretthauer EBSCO 2010 Qualitative An attractive work schedule and work environment in reducing nursing shortage Models of effective diction making and flexibility will improves the reputation of the nursing sector There is need to identify the link between flexibility and the schedules of the management to as strategies of attracting and retaining more nurses. The article provides a review on the best strategies to make the nursing profession more attractive.
Magnavita EBSCO 2014 Quantitative research- case study 723 Violence at work and nursing shortage Job strain and lack of social support contribute to violence at work There is need to address employee related issues through the development of an effective work-life balance program The article provides evidence on how ineffective work-life balance creates violence at work
Happel, Platania-Phung & Scott EBSCO 2013 Quantitative research 38 Improved conditions and nursing shortage An improvement in working conditions and better remuneration contributes to efficiency in nursing There is need to reconsider and revise the payment packages offered to nurse The article provides an insight on the role of better remuneration packages and working conditions in reducing nursing shortage

 

 

 

 

Annotated Bibliography

Chan, Z. C., Tam, W. S., Lung, M. K., Wong, W. Y., & Chau, C. W. (2013). A systematic

Literature review of nurse shortage and the intention to leave. Journal of Nursing Management21(4), 605-613. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2834.2012.01437.x

This article identifies the problem of nursing shortage as a global challenge and argues that failure to develop effective solutions to this problem may lead to the reduction of the quality of health care services. This article is important since it identifies the challenges related to nursing profession in different fields and countries and provides researched solutions that can be used in addressing the challenge.

Buchan, J., & Aiken, L. (2008). Solving nursing shortages: a common priority. Journal Of

Clinical Nursing17(24), 3262-3268. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2008.02636.x

Buchan and Aiken identify the shortage of nurses as the greatest setback in the provision of quality services in mental health care. Through an elaborate literature review on comparative analysis, the authors identify work overload and irregular work schedules as some of the contributors to the reduction of experts in the nursing profession.

Eren, N. (2014). Nurses’ attitudes toward ethical issues in psychiatric inpatient settings. Nursing

Ethics21(3), 359-373. Doi: 10.1177/0969733013500161

In this article, Eren argues that some of the contributing factors to the challenges that nurses face can be attributed to the existing ethical standards and the attitudes of these employees towards these standards. It is important for the management to consider the inclusion of ethical standards that improve the wellbeing of employees while at the same time ensuring a balance between the interest of the employees and those of the patients. Through such levels of consideration, it will be easier to motivate and inspire nurses towards joining and acquiring the necessary satisfaction levels.

Eriksen, K. Å., Dahl, H., Karlsson, B., & Arman, M. (2014). Strengthening practical wisdom:

Mental health workers’ learning and development. Nursing Ethics, 21(6), 707-719. doi: 10.1177/0969733013518446

The article identifies a strategy towards addressing the problem of nursing shortage; this is the introduction of professional development programs. Through professional development programs, it is relatively easier for the nurses in mental health to acknowledge the efforts by the management towards the improvement of career goals.

Happell, B., & Platania-Phung, C. (2012). Mental health placements in a general health setting:

no substitute for the real thing! Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21(13/14), 2026-2033. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2011.04016.x

Placement in the nursing profession is an essential determinant of the levels of experience that students in the medical institution are envisioned to acquire. Equality and transparency in the placement process increase the possibility that more students will be encouraged into the profession. This article is essential in this study since it provides tha arguments that discrimination in the placement of nurses contributes to loss of interest and trust in the profession and in the management.

 

Happell, B., Platania-Phung, C., & Scott, D. (2013). Mental Health Nurse Incentive Program:

Facilitating physical health care for people with mental illness? International Journal of Mental Health Nursing22(5), 399-408. doi:10.1111/inm.12006

This article argues that motivation forms and integral part in attracting and retaining nurses. Motivations include better working environment, just wages, effective work-life balance programs, and the existence of mutual interpersonal relationships between employees. This article provides some of the most effective solutions to the problem of shortage in the nursing sector. In addition, it also provides the methods that can be used in the implementation of these solutions.

Hamaideh, S. H. (2014). Moral distress and its correlates among mental health nurses in

Jordan. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing23(1), 33-41. doi:10.1111/inm.12000

This article identifies the role that different controlling factors play in the nursing sector by exacerbating the shortage of nurses in the medical field. The article provides an insight in the relationship between moral distress and the decision by nurses to leave the profession. Through this article, it is possible to develop an understanding that the decision to act according to that, which is right or that, which satisfies the interest of an organization creates a moral dilemma among nurses.

 

 

 

Magnavita, N. (2014). Workplace Violence and Occupational Stress in Healthcare Workers: A

Chicken-and-Egg Situation-Results of a 6-Year Follow-up Study. Journal of Nursing Scholarship46(5), 366-376. doi:10.1111/jnu.12088

Conflict of interest according to this article has been cited as the leading cause of workplace conflict and work related stress. This often happens in situations where the employees are not provided with sufficient time to handle non-work problems. It is therefore important for the management in the nursing department to develop effective work-life balance for the nurses as a retention and attraction technique.

Nankivell, J., Platania-Phung, C., Happell, B., & Scott, D. (2013). Access to Physical Health

Care for People with Serious Mental Illness: A Nursing Perspective and a Human Rights Perspective-Common Ground? Issues in Mental Health Nursing34(6), 442-450. doi:10.3109/01612840.2012.754974

The ability of patients to access effective medical services is highly dependent on the availability of effective medical facilities and a dedicated team of professionals. The team of professionals especially when dealing with serious mental illnesses will only be effective in the presence of up-to- date medical facilities. The absence of these facilities contributes to low interest in the profession hence the high levels of shortage in the nursing profession.

Nardi, D. A., & Gyurko, C. C. (2013). The Global Nursing Faculty Shortage: Status and

Solutions for Change. Journal of Nursing Scholarship45(3), 317-326. doi:10.1111/jnu.12030

The problem of nursing shortage in the view of this article emanates from the institutions of higher learning. Lack of enough professionals to teach the curriculum to the students has contributed to low interest in the course and production of less qualified nurses. It is necessary to develop strategies on how to equip institutions of higher learning with experts in the nursing profession to facilitate the provision of quality education

Wright, P. D., & Bretthauer, K. M. (2010). Strategies for Addressing the Nursing Shortage:

Coordinated Decision Making and Workforce Flexibility. Decision Sciences41(2), 373-401. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5915.2010.00269.x

This article recognizes the existed of shortage in the nursing profession. This recognition is based on the prevalence of workload and overtime for the available nurses especially in mental health care. Through a qualitative approach, the article proposes solutions that focus on flexibility and the need to engage the management in the development of effective strategies.

Wright, P. D., Bretthauer, K. M., & Côt, M. J. (2006). Reexamining the Nurse Scheduling

Problem: Staffing Ratios and Nursing Shortages. Decision Sciences, 37(1), 39-70. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5414.2006.00109.x

The schedules of nurses according to this article are the main contributor to the problem of shortage in the nursing profession. The article proposes that a reexamination of the scheduling procedures must be conducted. This can only be realized through assessing the ration of nurses to patients addressing the problem of shortages by introducing motivation strategies.

Tools

Different researchers embraced divergent tools in the realization of their research objectives. The tools used included sampled population, exiting books, journals, and books. In addition, there were also articles, which used questionnaires as tools for collecting data.

Effects on results

The tools that the researcher used had diverse effects on the findings. The researchers who used literature review as an approach in their studies were able to assess existing publications. The resulting information was relevant but relatively outdated since the tools were based on information that had already been studied. The researchers who used questionnaires and population samples as tools for collecting data had results that were updated because they were seeking information on the prevailing situation concerning the shortage in nursing. The use of different existing publications could have affected the results considering that different ethical issues might have emerged in the process of publishing and analyzing the findings in the publications.

Evidence Summary

Topic: Nursing shortage in mental health care

Clinical question

Population: Nurses in mental health clinics

Intervention: Introduction of polices to protect and motivate nurses

Comparison: Limited or no motivating factors in mental healthcare

Outcome: Efficiency in the delivery of mental healthcare due to availability of qualified nurses.

Main themes throughout the primary source

Remuneration

Nursing shortage

Working conditions

Work policies

Clinical bottom-line:

The two key criteria linking are knowledge-to-action rapid review criterion and the structured literature criterion which facilitate the process of understanding the underlying problem in the nursing sector. Nursing shortage in mental health care facilities is a problem that is generated by the existing structures within the sector of heath care it is the responsibility of the management to develop structures that take into consideration the interest of nurses and aligning them to those of the nursing sector. This evidence summary is founded on a structured literature search and selected evidence-based health care databank. The substantiation that is incorporated in this summary is from EBSCO which provides high quality and peer reviewed journals.

            The existing literature provides information concerning the ever-increasing shortage in nursing. Through an in-depth literature search, it has become evident that some of the factors contributing to this shortage include ineffective work life balance programs, poor work schedules, absence of effective motivation techniques, and the inefficiency of the institutions of higher learning to produce highly qualified nurses. Through knowledge to action rapid review criteria, this paper was able to embrace a comparative study approach in providing information concerning the problem of nursing shortage in different societies. Despite the differences in the prevailing circumstances in these societies, it is possible to recognize that the stakeholders in these societies have common objectives. This was realized through evidence-based practice that focuses on available evidence to develop effective conclusions. From evidence-based summary, Eren (2014) argues that the problem of nursing shortage results from the failure by the management to develop ethical standards that ensure a balance between the interests of the nurses and those of the nurses. Hamaideh (2014), while in support of the allegations on ethical standards, argues that failure to identify the balance between the interests of different parties often contributes to the development of moral distress among nurses. This generates confusion between the dictates of the law and those of the nursing fraternity. Happel & Platania (2008) however disagrees with these assertions by arguing from the perspective of Clinical placements, which is based on the realization that nurses often prefer transparency and the desire to learn to inform the learning process. Failure to adhere to these requirements leads to discrimination in placements, hence a decline in the population of nurses. Nursing shortages, according to Chan, Tam, Lung, Wong & Chau (2013), also result from organizational and individual factors. This explains why it is important for the management in nursing to develop strategies of retaining and promoting nurses to increase their retention capacity. In addition, ineffective facilities according to Nankivell, Happell & Scot (2013) lead to inefficiency of nurses and decreased levels of motivation. This contributes to nursing shortages, as fewer individuals are interested in the profession. This, as Eriksen et al (2014) present their affirmative reasoning, can only be rectified through the provision of better working conditions and professional and personal development trainings.

The problem of nursing shortage can also be understood from knowledge- to-action review criteria. While agreeing with this criterion Nardi, & Gyurko (2013) argue that the problem of nursing shortage is attributable to a reduction in the population of nursing faculty members. This means that the levels of education are relatively low. Despite this assumption, Griffith (2012) presents a contrary opinion by arguing that there are other factors, such as the prevailing economic and socio-political factors, which determine the possibility that more members of the medical fraternity will join nursing. It is also important to ensure that in the process of determining the economic, political, and social policies that define policies, strict adherence to the law must be ensured to minimize the possibility of exploitation (Wright et al, 2006). The factor of policy development is also vital in understanding the problem of nursing shortage. Magnavita (2014) argues that any policies developed can only address the problem of nursing shortage if violence at workplace, which is characterized by job strain and lack of social support, is solved. In addition, the improvement of the working conditions among nurses can also be through enhancing their working conditions and remuneration standard that are in accordance with the expectations of the law (Happel et al, 2013). This explains why Wright and Bretthauer (2014) agree to an all-inclusive policy development process by arguing that  it is important for the development of an effective decision making model to adhere to the levels of flexibility among employees. This will generate lasting solutions to the problem of nursing shortage.

Recommendations

The problem of nursing shortage arises from different factors that are unique to the nursing fraternity. One of the best ways to address this shortage would be the development of policies on how to improve the working conditions of nurses (Eriksen et al, 2014). These policies must be in agreement with the requirements of the law as a way of ensuring the presence of standard procedures (Wright et al, 2006). It will also be important for the management to consider the input of the nurses while developing working schedules (Chan et al, 2014). This will ensure that the process is all-inclusive in terms of addressing the interests of all the parties concerned (Wright & Bretthauer, 2010). In addition, it is also important for the management of the nurses to develop polices tha adhere to the ethical and professional codes of ethics that define the roles and responsibilities of nurses (Hamaideh, 2014).

 

 

The relevance of a theoretical model in nursing research

Theoretical models provide a platform of referencing and effective structures that can be used in understanding any research process. Theories often operate based on assumptions. These assumptions are often validate or falsified in any research. This means that for a research to be considered successful it must operate in accordance with the existing suppositions. Nursing is a scientific field that operates in accordance with defined theoretical patterns. Failure of one pattern is an indication of a paradigm shift to a better theoretical approach. The ability of a theoretical assumption to operate or fail is highly dependent on the prevailing conditions in the field of interest and the probable changes to these conditions. This leads to the conclusion that theoretical models in nursing act as a pathway towards the realization of objectives and goals of any research.

 

References

Buchan, J., & Aiken, L. (2008). Solving nursing shortages: a common priority. Journal Of

Clinical Nursing17(24), 3262-3268. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2008.02636.x

Chan, Z. C., Tam, W. S., Lung, M. K., Wong, W. Y., & Chau, C. W. (2013). A systematic

literature review of nurse shortage and the intention to leave. Journal of Nursing Management21(4), 605-613. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2834.2012.01437.x

Eren, N. (2014). Nurses’ attitudes toward ethical issues in psychiatric inpatient settings. Nursing

Ethics21(3), 359-373. Doi: 10.1177/0969733013500161

Eriksen, K. Å., Dahl, H., Karlsson, B., & Arman, M. (2014). Strengthening practical wisdom:

Mental health workers’ learning and development. Nursing Ethics, 21(6), 707-719. Doi: 10.1177/0969733013518446

Happell, B., & Platania-Phung, C. (2012). Mental health placements in a general health setting:

no substitute for the real thing! Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21(13/14), 2026-2033. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2011.04016.x

Happell, B., Platania-Phung, C., & Scott, D. (2013). Mental Health Nurse Incentive Program:

Facilitating physical health care for people with mental illness? International Journal of Mental Health Nursing22(5), 399-408. doi:10.1111/inm.12006

Hamaideh, S. H. (2014). Moral distress and its correlates among mental health nurses in

Jordan. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing23(1), 33-41. doi:10.1111/inm.12000

Magnavita, N. (2014). Workplace Violence and Occupational Stress in Healthcare Workers: A

Chicken-and-Egg Situation-Results of a 6-Year Follow-up Study. Journal of Nursing Scholarship46(5), 366-376. doi:10.1111/jnu.12088

Nankivell, J., Platania-Phung, C., Happell, B., & Scott, D. (2013). Access to Physical Health

Care for People with Serious Mental Illness: A Nursing Perspective and a Human Rights Perspective-Common Ground? Issues in Mental Health Nursing34(6), 442-450. doi:10.3109/01612840.2012.754974

Nardi, D. A., & Gyurko, C. C. (2013). The Global Nursing Faculty Shortage: Status and

Solutions for Change. Journal of Nursing Scholarship45(3), 317-326. doi:10.1111/jnu.12030

Wright, P. D., & Bretthauer, K. M. (2010). Strategies for Addressing the Nursing Shortage:

Coordinated Decision Making and Workforce Flexibility. Decision Sciences41(2), 373-401. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5915.2010.00269.x

Wright, P. D., Bretthauer, K. M., & Côt, M. J. (2006). Reexamining the Nurse Scheduling

Problem: Staffing Ratios and Nursing Shortages. Decision Sciences, 37(1), 39-70. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5414.2006.00109.x