The epidemiological triad consists of three factors. This includes agent, host, and environment. They interact and result in various states of health in an individual or the community. An external agent, which is a micro-organism, is capable of causing diseases, and it must be present for a disease to occur. It causes infectious diseases, accidental injuries and non-infectious diseases (Janes & Bartlett, 2016). The susceptible host, which is the organism, is capable of being infected by specific agents. Its exposure is influenced by intrinsic factors, such as socio-economic status, lifestyle, behaviors, and environment, which are external to the host. For example, the physical factors, the biological factors, the sanitation facilities and access to health services of the host give a room for an infection to occur.
The common diagnosis in acute care setting is neonatal infections, respiratory infections, and circulatory conditions. The diagnosis increases hospital admission and readmission rates. It is also commonly associated with high health care costs, long hospital stay, and high mortality rates. Most common diagnosis in community settings are viral infection, communicable diseases and infection from poor sanitation and hygiene. Epidemiology triad differs, when a nurse is providing health care in community setting, by the way the models interrelate to produce diseases (Diem & Moyer, 2015). Types of diseases require different balance and interaction of the three models. The demographic changes, pattern of disease, method of control, prevention of health problem and wellness focus cause the difference in the epidemiology triad. The nurse should ensure a maximum free infection setting. This will minimize the amount of infection caused by the triad process. A nurse should exercise more control measure, and observe septic techniques to avoid contamination. This is the main cause agent for many health problems.
Problems in acute care need accurate measures. This includes infectious process, which are usually diagnosed in extended care facility or at the community level. Owing to inability to appropriate treatment administration, they deteriorate (Janes & Bartlett, 2016). The infection which patient acquires needs to be epidemiologically measured. The nurse uses epidemiology by identifying health problem and needs. They collect and analyze data to identify risk factors. And also plan, implement, and evaluate methods for prevention and control.
This helps in providing an overview of the hospital or community, and infection control measures. They detect challenges and opportunities faced by the health care epidemiology community and intervene by promoting, restoring, and maintaining health. This also includes promotion, prevention, cure, rehabilitation, and palliative efforts (Janes & Bartlett, 2016). The data are used in the community for follow up purposes and interventions. It is also used to compare with the current data analysis, improving on surveillance and prevention measures. The data are used to determine the rate of health problem, and time of their occurrence.
Increase in health cost is caused by many factors, such as increased number of aging population, high birth rate, poverty, and increase in life expectancy, increased disease burden, infectious and chronic diseases. It is a nurse’s role to know about the global health issues in education, practice and policy. This role influences nursing profession. They are able to reflect on important evolution in thinking, and about health issues in the world. They can contribute in saving lives by improving health throughout the world.
The nurse continues to have a large impact in improvement of the global health issues and delivery of health care (Diem & Moyer, 2015). The information are useful in expanding access to health care. It helps in collaboration between schools of nursing and course development for international health. This is done through expansion of educational capacity and developing educational mobility. It brings professional role in socialization and quality care building. This acts as a framework of patient-centered care.
Diem, E., and Moyer, A. (2015). Community and public health nursing: Learning to make a difference through teamwork. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press.
Janes, K. and Bartlett, S. (2016). Community health nursing: Caring for public health. Jones & Bartlett Learning.