Research Sample Paper on Ovarian Cancer


Ovarian cancer remains the fourth cause of death amid women and the most deadly among gynecological tumors in the US. Ovarian cancer affects the ovaries of female individuals. The illness mainly involves women who have gone through some ovulations. Ovarian cancer is curable if only treated early. It is very difficult to identify ovarian cancer unless screening and diagnosis approaches are put in place particularly during the early stages of its occurrence. The pace bywhich ovarian cancer is emerging is rising in daily basis worldwide. Therefore, it would be essential to have more effective preclinical evaluations and prior phase-clinical tests to assist the selection of active agents in the initial stages. Early diagnosis saves about 95% of the affected patients while screening during the advanced stages only saves less or 5% in the United States. Numerous treatments are undertaken, for instance, surgery and chemotherapy after a female is diagnosed with ovarian cancer.

Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancer is a disorder that takes place in the ovaries of feminine reproductive organs. In most cases, it remains unnoticed until slight tumors align on the abdominal cavity and when the cancer cells attack reproductive organs. Ovarian cancer occurs in the abdominal cells in the body before confronting other parts. During its initial stages, there could be no or just unclear symptoms (Taylor & Gercel-Taylor, 2008). Majorly, females who have ovulated for long in their lifetime are the ones who could be at risk of being affected by this disorder. Ovulation factor would involve women who have never had kids, those who experience ovulation in their younger life stages, or those who could have attained menopause at an older age. Ovarian cancer could be hereditary from one generation to another. Approximately 10% issues are linked with generic risk; women who have mutations in their genes BRCA1 OR BRCA1 contribute up to 50% of the disease inheritance. The main common category of ovarian cancer in the tumor is known as the ovarian carcinoma. Nevertheless, ovarian cancer has numerous signs and symptoms.

Signs and Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of this cancer are often vague or absent in the initial stages. The preliminary stages of ovarian cancer seem to be painless except when the masses lead to ovarian torsion. Major initial stages could comprise abdominal and pelvic pain, pain on the back side, repeated or urgent urination, vaginal bleeding, irregular menstruation, bleeding during or after copulation, loss of appetite, indigestion, heartburn, nausea, difficulty in eating, and early satiety (Zhang et al., 2008). When these symptoms commence and take place more rigorous than before, particularly after no substantial history of such indications, ovarian cancer should be diagnosed. For adolescents or children, symptoms could comprise irritation of the peritoneum, severe abdominal pain or bleeding. For instance, when the tumor becomes more advanced, it could cause accumulation of fluid in the abdomen. Progressive cancers could lead to intestinal masses, pleural effusion, or lymph node masses. The solitary screening suggested for all females is a yearly pelvic diagnosis. This may not be employed in the identification of the initial ovarian cancer as it is normally noted in the prospective stages. Ovarian cancer diagnosis should be a higher priority for the women as when noticed in its initial stages it could be cured. As per research conducted in the US, 95% of the detected cases in the initial stages are treated.  Screening of any kind must be precise and dependable as it requires correctly identifying the disorder and it should not provide false positive outcomes that do not represent cancer.


Females with the sturdy genetic risk of cancer could consider the operational removal of their ovaries as a deterrent measure. This is frequently done after completion of the children bearing period. Simultaneously, this decreases chances of mounting of breast cancer and other forms of cancers. Females who have BRCA gene mutations should undergo operation, which could result in removal of their oviducts. This operation is undertaken as the women may simultaneously suffer from fallopian tubes cancer (Kurman, & Shih, 2010). Nevertheless, the approach of treatment could overrate the risk of decrease or increase according to how they have been examined. A generation or a family that could have a history of cancer is frequently advised to consult a genetic counselor to evaluate whether they should be diagnosed for BRCA mutations.


Researchers are evaluating diverse techniques to screen for ovarian cancer. Screening tests that could be possibly employed alone or in grouping for day to day screening comprise the CA-125 marker and transvaginal ultrasound. Physicians could rate the echelons of the CA-125 protein in a female’s blood; large echelons could be an indication of ovarian cancer, but this is not frequently the situation, and not all females with ovarian cancer have large CA-125 echelons (Zhang et al., 2008). Transvaginal ultrasound involves employing an ultrasound probe to test the ovaries from inside the vagina, giving a precise image than scanning the abdomen.


Ovarian cancer normally includes a moderately deprived prognosis. It is excessively fatal as it does not have any clear prior detection or screening assessment which means that diagnosis is often done in the progressive stages. Cancerous cells metastasize early in their preliminary growth, frequently earlier towards a diagnosis. Complications of the tumor and cancer could comprise spread of the disorder to other parts of the body, ascites, loss of several organs, and intestinal obstruction, which could be deadly (Audeh et al., 2010).  Majorly, intestinal obstruction in numerous sites in the body is the cause of death for the ovarian cancer patients. Intestinal obstruction in the ovarian tumor could close the intestinal lumen. Moreover, pseudo-obstruction could hinder peristalsis from taking place. Persistent accumulation of ascites could be treated by putting a gutter that may be self-drained.

Management and Treatment

Ovarian cancer treatment normally includes chemotherapy and surgery.  In some cases, radiotherapy is involved irrespective of the subcategory of ovarian cancer. Surgical management could be necessary for thorough differentiated malignant tumors and limited to the ovary. Advanced chemotherapy could be essential for further violent tumors limited to the ovary. Patients who notice the disorder in the advanced stages could undergo a combination of surgical reduction and chemotherapy regimen (Bast, Hennessy, & Mills, 2009). In borderline cancers, which could spread to the external parts of the ovary, managerial methods of surgery and chemotherapy have been proved not to be beneficial, and thus research should be carried out on how to handle the issue.


Surgery is majorly preferred as it is essential in attaining a tissue specimen for distinct diagnosis through its histology. The category of surgery relies on the disorder’s spread rate, the stage, as well as the assumed type and level of cancer. In most cases, the two ovaries are removed although at times it is only one that is eliminated. At times, the uterus and the omentum could be eliminated (Bast et al., 2009). For low-level, stage-IA tumors, operations only involve removal of the oviduct. This usually takes place in the young females who could intend to reserve their fertility. This kind of operation could be done to aged women who could have completed giving birth or attained the menopause age.  For instance, when metastasis is established, a second surgery to eliminate the enduring ovary and uterus is essential (Resnick et al., 2009). Tranexamic acid could be induced before surgery is done to decrease the necessity for a blood transfusion because of blood loss in the course of the operation.


Chemotherapy is normally employed after surgery to manage any outstanding disease when appropriate. At times, there could be the need to perform chemotherapy initially trailed by surgery (Resnick et al., 2009). This is called neoadjuvant chemotherapy mostly present when tumor cannot be totally eliminated. When this operation does not work out, a patient should undergo extra chemotherapy referred to as adjuvant.

Radiation Therapy

Dysgerminomas are maximum if efficiently managed with radiation; although this could cause infertility, it is highly preferred than chemotherapy. Radiation is recommended for cancer patients in the early stages of symptoms (Bojesen et al., 2013). In the advanced stages of cancer, radiation therapy is employed after surgery is done.



Palliative Care

This care aims at a patient getting rid of symptoms and improving the quality of life for the affected women. Palliative care has been commended as part of the management strategy for any female with progressive ovarian cancer or those with significantly advanced symptoms. Palliative care comprises controlling of symptoms and difficulties of cancer. These problems could comprise nausea, constipation, pain, bowel obstruction, mucositis, pleural effusion, and edema (Audeh et al., 2010). Particularly, when cancer progresses and becomes incurable, management suits to be the main objectives of therapy. Palliative care could also assist the patient in decision-making, for instance, when hospice care is suitable. Palliative surgery could be employed to treat bowel obstruction, which has proved to increase survival rates. Radiation therapy could be employed as part of palliative care for the progressive ovarian cancer as it assists in shrinking tumors, which initiate symptoms.


Ovarian cancer could affect any woman globally. Therefore, females should seek early screening and treatment before the disorder has advanced. It would be essential if women could be looking for diagnosis at least twice annually, which could reduce cancer deaths worldwide. Moreover, females should employ all preventive methods to curb ovarian cancer.



Audeh, M. W., Carmichael, J., Penson, R. T., Friedlander, M., Powell, B., Bell-McGuinn, K. M., & Lu, K. (2010). Oral poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor olaparib in patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and recurrent ovarian cancer: A proof-of-concept trial. The Lancet, 376(9737), 245-251.

Bast, R. C., Hennessy, B., & Mills, G. B. (2009). The biology of ovarian cancer: New opportunities for translation. Nature Reviews Cancer, 9(6), 415-428.

Bojesen, S. E., Pooley, K. A., Johnatty, S. E., Beesley, J., Michailidou, K., Tyrer, J. P., & Hillman, K. M. (2013). Multiple independent variants at the TERT locus are associated with telomere length and risks of breast and ovarian cancer. Nature Genetics, 45(4), 371-384.

Kurman, R. J., & Shih, I. M. (2010).The Origin and pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer-a proposed unifying theory. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 34(3), 433.

Resnick, K. E., Alder, H., Hagan, J. P., Richardson, D. L., Croce, C. M., & Cohn, D. E. (2009). The detection of differentially expressed microRNAs from the serum of ovarian cancer patients using a novel real-time PCR platform. Gynecologic Oncology, 112(1), 55-59.

Taylor, D. D., & Gercel-Taylor, C. (2008). MicroRNA signatures of tumor-derived exosomes as diagnostic biomarkers of ovarian cancer. Gynecologic Oncology, 110(1), 13-21.

Zhang, S., Balch, C., Chan, M. W., Lai, H. C., Matei, D., Schilder, J. M., & Nephew, K. P. (2008). Identification and characterization of ovarian cancer-initiating cells from primary human tumors. Cancer Research, 68(11), 4311-4320.