Nursing Sample Paper on Pneumothorax

Executive Summary

Pneumothorax disease is described as air flow through the pleural space producing reduced pressure strain and varied level of lung failure (Zahl, 2013). This paper focuses on primary and secondary pneumothorax subtypes. A primary pneumothorax suggests no clinically noticeable lung condition despite the fact that generally apical blebs or emphysema – identical alterations are found within the lung exterior, usually at the apex of the top lobe. Currently, researchers are debating on if the blebs are the actual cause of pneumothorax or if there is some sort of air passage blockage resulting in interstitial and mediastinal emphysema along with secondary shatter into the pleural space. Primary pneumothorax happens often in men, with a projected prevalence between 7.4 and 18 cases/100 000/year (Zahl, 2013). Typical features of primary pneumothorax not merely consist of men but also early age, tall and trim physiognomy and cigarettes smokers. The majority of affected individuals with secondary pneumothorax have COPD. Additional causes are interstitial and contagious lung condition, and exceptional diseases as thoracic endometriosis

Primary pneumothorax is commonly a harmless medical condition therefore medical practitioners termed it as a low-mortality bother. The normal level of occurrence of a primary pneumothorax is thirty percent and threat variables consist of radiographic proof of asthenic habitus, pulmonary fibrosis, cigarette smoking, and youthful age, and not the existence bullae or blebs.  In contrast, a secondary pneumothorax is a severe ailment which is deadly. Its prevalence in the public equates to that of a primary pneumothorax only that it is four-fold substantial in individuals with COPD. Patients with COPD have four times upsurge in comparative death rate with each secondary pneumothorax occurrence (Scott, Berger &Mckean, 2012).

Size of the disease

Acquiring an accurate dimension of the pneumothorax stays challenging. In a pneumothorax design, the conventional chest radiograph was discovered to be an inferior device in forecasting the pneumothorax size contrary to a chest CT scan. A discrepancy was noted on the correlation coefficient of the CT scan and for the chest X-ray which were 0.99 and 0.71 respectively. The actual cause of this disparity is the uneven failure that happens to the majority of patients (Scott, Berger &Mckean, 2012).

Overall treatment of pneumothorax

A number of therapies exist for pneumothorax. General, remedying of has pneumothorax has two main goals: discharge of air from the pleural space; as well as prohibition of recurrence. In 1993, the British Thoracic Society outlined regulations as concerns pneumothorax after receiving professional judgment from more than a hundred and fifty doctors. In these regulations, a conventional strategy is preferred. The authors indicated that tension pneumothorax from a primary pneumothorax hardly occurs and that even a total failure is treatable through simple aspiration. In the event of a restricted ailment that is pneumothorax with only a tiny edge of air around the lung, inpatient observation strongly suggested. When there is an average or total failure, drainage of air by aspiration is preferred, as it is also in individuals suffering from COPD. The thoracic drain is inserted only in cases of total failure. Nevertheless, this conventional technique continues to be significantly overlooked. In a recent study of 115 cases with the disease admitted at a general medical center in the USA, Aspiration proved to be effective on 59% of patients (Alrajhi, Woo &Vaillancourt, 2012). However, in 26% of the cases that were in the beginning effective, an increase in size of the pneumothorax transpired. Again Alrajhi, Woo &Vaillancourt (2012) noted that 22% of the patients were treated in line with the American Thoracic Society guidelines.

Video Assisted Thoracic Surgery (VATS) treatment of Pneumothorax

With the launch of VATS in the early 1990’s the interest in early treatment of pneumothorax has rekindled to avoid a considerable lateral thoracotomy incision and to achieve minimally intrusive therapy for pneumothorax. There is a distinction between the medical pleuroscopy practiced by pulmonary doctors and a VATS treatment (Zarogoulidis et al., 2014).


Remedying of pneumothorax stays debatable as a result of insufficient proof. For a secondary pneumothorax, a more severe strategy is justified as a greater fatality rate could be envisioned. Relating to recurrence avoidance, the suitable approach continues to be identified. VATS offer an appealing medical approach because of its exceptional visualization of the thoracic cavity and feasible interventions, in addition to the lung parenchyma as on the parietal pleura, contributing to a sufficient obliteration of the pleural space.






Alrajhi, K., Woo, M. Y., &Vaillancourt, C. (2012). Test characteristics of ultrasonography for the detection of pneumothorax: a systematic review and meta-analysis. CHEST Journal141(3), 703-708.

Scott, G. C., Berger, R., &Mckean, H. E. (2012).The role of atmospheric pressure variation in the development of spontaneous pneumothoraces. American Review of Respiratory Disease.

Zahl, E. (2013). Systematic Review Snapshot. Annals of emergency medicine61(2).

Zarogoulidis, P., Kioumis, I., Pitsiou, G., Porpodis, K., Lampaki, S., Papaiwannou, A., …&Dryllis, G. (2014). Pneumothorax: from definition to diagnosis and treatment. Journal of thoracic disease6(4), S372-S376.