Erythroblastosis Fetalis refer to a hemolytic anemia in the fetus resulting from transplacental transmission of the antibodies of the mother to the red blood cells of the fetus (Dulay). It is caused by the mismatch between the blood groups of the mother and the fetus.
There are two major causes of erythroblastosis fetalis and they include the following; throughout pregnancy, the red blood cells of the fetus usually move across the placenta of the mother (Dulay). This movement is usually greater at the termination of pregnancy or during delivery. Fetomaternal hemorrhage can take place after trauma and sometimes after the termination of pregnancy or during delivery.
ABO incompatibility is another category of hemolytic disease of newborns. This happens when the blood category of A, B, or O of the mother is not compatible with the blood of the baby.On the other hand, babies can carry uncommon antigens that can put at a threat of erythroblastosis fetalis(Dulay). These antigens include diego, Lutheran, kidd, duffy, and ken among others.
Babies with erythroblastosis fetalis may lookswollen after birth (Smith). It entails spaces in the lungs, abdomen, and lungs.
Erythroblastosis fetalis disorder is diagnosed by a doctor who can do a routine blood test during the first five visit of an expectant mother. This enables the doctor to find out the blood type of the mother and if she has anti-Rh antibodies in her blood in her former pregnancy. If the mother has Rh antibodies and Rh-negative, the father’s blood will also be tested (Smith).
A doctor can detect ABO incompatibility through a blood test called coombs test. This is done after the birth of the baby. This can show if the baby is anemic or has jaundice.
A mother can use a preventive treatment called RhoGAM that can reduce the reaction of the mother to the Rh-positive blood cells of the baby. This can be done as a shot at approximately the 28th week of pregnancy. Additionally, blood transfusions may be mandatory. Giving baby fluids at regular intervals can improve low blood pressure of the baby.
Dulay, Antonette. “Erythroblastosis Fetalis – Gynecology and Obstetrics – Merck Manuals Professional Edition”. Merck Manuals Professional Edition, 2017, https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/abnormalities-of-pregnancy/erythroblastosis-fetalis.
Smith, Lori. “Erythroblastosis Fetalis: Causes, Symptoms, And Treatment”. Medical News Today, 2017, https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/314472.php.