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Sample Essay on Adenovirus

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Sample Essay on Adenovirus

Adenoviruses are uncovered icosahedra viruses that are medium in size and comprise a nucleocapsid as well as double-stranded linear DNA genome. Several serotypes exist in humans, which cause upper respiratory diseases in kids and several illnesses in adults. Viruses that belong to Adenoviridae family infect several kinds of animals as well as human beings. Adenoviruses were initially separated from human adenoids, where the name originates, and are categorized as group 1 under the Baltimore classification system. Adenoviruses are among the largest uncovered viruses since their bigger size makes it possible for them to be transported to the end as the cover fusion is not required. The virion has a distinct “spike” or fiber linked to every pennon base of the capsid that assists in bonding with the host cell through the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor on the surface of the host cell. The adenovirus genome is linear, non-segmented double-stranded DNA, which enables the virus to transport several genes. Adenoviruses can reproduce in the mammalian nucleus cells through the host’s reproduction system (Williams and Barker202).

Adenovirus is a transmissible DNA form of virus that occurs in two strains: Type 1 called canine adenovirus type 1 and type 2 called canine adenovirus type 2. Type 1 is the most dangerous and leads to infection of key organs or Hepatitis. Type 1 also attacks the liver and results in hemorrhage, leading to acute death due to shock. Type 2 is minor and leads to respiratory infections and pneumonia if not cured. Type 2 is also the main cause of “kennel cough’ in dogs. Adenovirus often affects all kinds of mammals and birds, including cats and dogs. The virus mostly infects animals that are not vaccinated and is transmitted by those that come into contact with the infected ones (Williamsand Barker 204).

Diagnosis is carried out by providing a detailed record of the animal health, commencement of symptoms, earlier diseases, and probable cases that could have resulted in the condition. For example, a dog can be infected by coming into contact with other dogs like kennels or regularity of contact with feces, especially in open areas where dogs are allowed to excrete. The veterinarian conducts a detailed physical examination on the animal using standard laboratory work. Moreover, a complete blood profile is performed as well as chemical blood report, a whole blood count, a urinalysis and an electrolyte panel. Imaging methods comprise abdominal radiography to determine the broadening of the liver(hepatomegaly) and fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity, and abdominal ultrasonography, which is a comprehensive examination of the liver to find out if it is expanded or has necrosis infection (cell death) (Davison,Benko, and Harrach 2903).

The symptoms of Adenovirus starts with a painful throat and coughing since the virus first attacks the throat region. The mouth of a dog develops yellow mucus in the mouth. Hemorrhaging commences as the virus grows, causing nose bleeds as well as small bruises on the skin. Certain dogs also grow cloudy or blue-tint eyes. The advanced phases of the Adenovirus lead to liver and kidney failure as well as high levels of dehydration, confiscations, nausea, diarrhea, and stomach ache. Death occurs once the liver and kidney fail (Thomas et al. 7486).

The treatment of an animal infected with Adenovirus depends on how early the virus is discovered. Early detection requires only simple visits to the veterinarian. If not, inpatient care is required to assist the animal in healing. The veterinarian utilizes a fluid treatment to make the animal hydrated because of quick loss of fluids though diarrhea and vomiting. A fresh blood treatment with antibodies is also utilized which assists in providing additional doses of Potassium and Magnesium. Such process assists in reducing the virus’ ability to prevent clotting of wounds or open sores, which can bleed out. Provision of fresh blood assists the animal’s body to recover quickly and clot open wounds resulting from the virus. Finally, foods with high levels of protein and nitrogen are provided to animals as much a possible because the virus reduces the animal’s ability to feed and maintain a healthy immune system. The required protein and nitrogen supplements found in food assist in fighting the virus. Complete healing takes place after five days of treatment. However, recovery can differ based on the strength of the virus as well as the animal’s immune system and age (Saha, Wong, and Parks3565).

The DA2PPC vaccine is normally given out to animals like dogs to protect them against several viruses, which include adenovirus type 1 and 2.  The vaccine is in most cases given to eight weeks puppies and later at 12 and 16 weeks. The vaccine is given out again at one year and can be administered at every three-year interval. This vaccine protects a dog against adenovirus but must be given out before the animal is infected (San Martin 854).

The Adenovirus infects both humans and pets. Dogs and cats are prone to an adenovirus infection, and it is significant to understand its signs and symptoms. It is necessary to ensure that animals get the full treatment of recommended drugs even they seem to be feeling well. The Adenovirus is dangerous to people and animals and can result in numerous problems and hepatitis. Animals need to be frequently vaccinated and examined to assist in preventing its infection.

 

 

Works Cited

Davison, Andrew J., Maria Benko, and Balazs Harrach. “Genetic Content and Evolution of Adenoviruses.” Journal of General Virology 84.11 (2003): 2895-2908.

Saha, Bratati, Carmen M. Wong, and Robin J. Parks. “The Adenovirus Genome Contributes To The Structural Stability Of The Virion.” Viruses 6.9 (2014): 3563-3583.

San Martín, Carmen. “Latest Insights on Adenovirus Structure and Assembly.” Viruses 4.5 (2012): 847-877.

Thomas, Clare E., et al. “Peripheral Infection With Adenovirus Causes Unexpected Long-Term Brain Inflammation In Animals Injected Intracranially With First-Generation, But Not With High-Capacity, Adenovirus Vectors: Toward Realistic Long-Term Neurological Gene Therapy For Chronic Diseases.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97.13 (2000): 7482-7487.

Williams, Elizabeth S., and Ian K. Barker, eds. Infectious diseases of wild mammals. John Wiley & Sons, 2008.

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