Sample Coursework Paper on Reproductive System

The human reproductive system works in a complex manner with the sole purpose of reproduction. The process of reproduction is widely studied with a strong emphasis on both male and female reproductive systems taking the center stage in this analysis. The following analysis highlights the most important lessons and self-care that have been found interesting with regard to male and female reproductive systems. Although it has been described as the most complex reproductive system in human anatomy, the female reproductive system can be classified into internal and external genitals. The internal female genitals comprise the eggs or the ova, vagina, uterus, fallopian tube, and ovaries. These are complemented by the external female genitals which comprise the vulva, labia majora, pubis, clitoris, labia minora, urethral opening, and finally vestibule. The female genitals also experience the menstrual cycle every month unless there is pregnancy (ACOG, 2015).

The various components of female genitals both internal and external have specific functions, which are important in the whole reproductive system. For instance, the uterine tubes (fallopian tubes) are responsible for receiving ovulated oocyte, which is generated from the ovary while it provides the fertilization site as well. It is at this place that fertilization occurs especially around the ampulla. After fertilization, the fertilized ovum is received and sustained by the uterus until birth. When the gestation period is over and the birth process is at hand, the vagina provides the passageway for the delivery of the baby. Vagina also provides the delivery of sperms to the fallopian tubes and allows the discharge of menstrual flow. External organs in the female genitals are as well important. For instance, it is the responsibility of vestibular glands to secrete mucus, which lubricates the vestibule to keep it moist in order to facilitate sexual intercourse. During sexual intercourse, all these organs are involved with the clitoris increasing orgasm due to muscle tension, blood pressure, pulse rate, and the release of oxytocin. Finally, an interesting aspect of female genitals is the lack of refractory period like in males making females experience orgasms during a single sexual encounter (ACOG, 2015).

The Male Reproductive System

Just like the study of female genitals, male reproductive genitals also contain both internal and external components. However, unlike in females, a large proportion of male genitals is external. Male external genitals comprise the scrotum and the penis. The urethra is contained in the penis and it provides a passageway through which ejaculation occurs. Internal male genitals contain numerous structures like corpora cavernosa, urethra, testes, and corpus spongiosum. An interesting aspect of males is the development of their genitals. For instance, the testes are developed near the kidneys are only descend to the scrotum just before birth. Testes contain testosterone, which is responsible for the stimulation in the production of sperms (EngenderHealth, 2003).

The scrotum is responsible for maintaining the temperatures of the testes below 37 degrees and may vary in size and shape at different times of the day depending on the temperature. This is an interesting aspect of male genitals and their self-regulation to respond to various temperature variations. When it is cold, the scrotum appears tightly wrinkled pushing testes close to the body heat and when cold, on contrary the scrotum becomes flaccid when hot causing the testes to lower far from body temperatures. This is an interesting factor in male genitals in the production of sperms. In order to have healthy and energetic sperms, the temperatures in the scrotum have to be a little bit lower (35 degrees) than the normal body temperatures. The muscles responsible for temperature regulation for the scrotum are the cremaster and dartos. Seminal Vesicles are responsible for the secretion of fructose, which provides source energy for sperms, as well as alkalinity, which enhances sperm mobility. Finally, the prostate gland helps during an ejaculation when it contracts to push the expulsion of the semen from the urethra (EngenderHealth, 2003).

Self-care and Prevention

The reproduction system in human beings is subjected to various reproductive-system illnesses, which have caused panic and concern among health practitioners across the world. Among such illnesses that are prevalent in males is the inflammation of the prostate (prostatitis). This leads to prostate cancer, which is fatal. As observed earlier, the urethra, which passes the urine, passes right through the prostate gland. Prostate undergoes two major growth spurts, one during public and the other in the fourth decade of life. Since prostate cancer has no visible symptoms at early stages, regular checkups are important especially for those families with a history of the disease. Though there are no known causes of prostatitis, a bacterial infection is a possibility and major cause of inflammation. On the other hand, female self-care and disease prevention have majorly focused on the cervix, breast, ovaries, uterus, and vagina. Breast cancer is recorded as leading cancer among women and the second major cause of cancer death. Early detection of breast cancer is paramount to its treatment and control. Breast cancer starts as a lump or a small formation of cells occurring in the breast. Women with a family history of cancer are highly susceptible the same as those women who witnessed early puberty or late menopause. Women can prevent breast cancer by regular exercises, limiting alcohol intake, weight control, and intake of a balanced diet (EngenderHealth, 2003).

 

References

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (ACOG). (2015). What Should I Know about Screening for Breast Cancer? 

EngenderHealth. (2003). Management of Men’s Reproductive Health Problems.