Sample Coursework Paper on Human Diversity: Its Nature, Extent, Causes and Effects on People

    1. Vegetative cells of clostridium in an anaerobic environment produce Tetanus toxin which blocks the release of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
    2. The S1 is caused by turbulence that resulted from the closure of mitral and tricuspid valves at the start of systole(Wilkins, 2011).
    3. S4 occurs just before S1 when the atrial contract forces blood into the left ventricle. Supposing, the left ventricle is non-compliant, and atria contraction forces blood via the atria valves, an S4 is produced by blood striking the left ventricle.
    4. It is a condition that results from the narrowing of the aortic valve opening in the heart hindering blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta(Wilkins, 2011).
    5. Systolic sound occurs between the first heart sound (S1) and the second heart sound (S2). Murmur can be categorized into; timing, shape, location, intensity, radiation, pitch, and quality.
    6. It is a persistent disorder characterized by reversible airway obstruction, airway inflammation, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness(Wilkins, 2011). In the respiratory tubes, inflamed airways react to environmental triggers such as dust, and smoke making the airways narrow and producing excess mucus resulting in difficulties in breathing.
    7. Rhesus-positive blood persons only donate to rhesus-positive blood persons. Blood AB Rh⁺ donates to AB Rh⁺, A Rh⁺ donate to both AB Rh⁺ and A Rh⁺, B Rh⁺ donates to both AB Rh⁺ and B Rh⁺ while O Rh⁺ donates to O Rh⁺, A Rh⁺, B Rh⁺ , and AB Rh⁺ blood group(Lamb, 2015).
    8. B-cells and plasma cells do not move to the site of infection while the T-cells move to the site of infection(Lamb, 2015).
    9. Occur when the air escape from the lungs. When the air that circulates within the lungs leaks into pleural space, this buildup air enhances pressure increase in the lungs hence collapsing of the lung.
    10. Orbicularis muscles close the eye.
    11. Two blood groups, AB blood group, and B blood group.
    12. Rhesus-negative mothers during and after each pregnancy because every pregnancy puts the mother a risk of exposing herself to rhesus-positive red blood cells of her new baby(Lamb, 2015).
    13. It is a serum complement system that represents a major component of innate immunity, participates in inflammation as well as acts to facilitate adaptive immune response(Wilkins, 2011). This system assists antibodies and phagocytic cells clear pathogens from the living organism.

    Lamb, B. C. (2015). Human Diversity: Its Nature, Extent, Causes and Effects on People. New York: World Scientific.

    Wilkins, R. (2011). Oxford Handbook of Medical Sciences. OUP Oxford: Oxford.