Sample Coursework Paper on Human Diversity: Its Nature, Extent, Causes and Effects on People

    1. Vegetative cells of clostridium in anaerobic environment produces Tetanus toxin which blocks the release of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
    2. The S1, is caused by turbulence that resulted from the closure of mitral and tricuspid valves at the start of systole(Wilkins, 2011).
    3. S4 occurs just before S1 when the atrial contract forcing blood into left ventricle. Supposing, the left ventricle is non-compliant, and atria contraction forces blood via the atria valves, an S4 is produced by blood striking the left ventricle.
    4. It is a condition that results from narrowing of aortic valves opening in the heart hindering blood flow from left ventricle to the aorta(Wilkins, 2011).
    5. Systolic sound occurs between the first heart sound (S1) and the second heart sound (S2). Murmur can be categorized into; timing, shape, location, intensity, radiation, pitch and quality.
    6. It is a persistent disorder characterized by reversible airway obstruction, airway inflammation and bronchial hyper responsiveness(Wilkins, 2011). In the respiratory tubes, inflamed airways react to environmental triggers such as dust, smoke making the airways to narrow and produce excess mucus resulting to difficulties in breathing.
    7. Rhesus positive blood person only donate to rhesus positive blood person. Blood AB Rh⁺ donates to AB Rh⁺, A Rh⁺ donate to both AB Rh⁺ and A Rh⁺, B Rh⁺ donates to both AB Rh⁺ and B Rh⁺ while O Rh⁺ donates to O Rh⁺, A Rh⁺, B Rh⁺ and AB Rh⁺ blood group(Lamb, 2015).
    8. B-cells, plasma cells do not move to the site of infection while the T-cells move to the site of infection(Lamb, 2015).
    9. Occur when the air escape from the lungs. When the air that circulates within the lungs leaks into pleural space, this buildup air enhance pressure increase in the lungs hence collapsing of the lung.
    10. Orbicularis muscles closes the eye.
    11. Two blood groups, AB blood group and B blood group.
    12. Rhesus negative mother during and after each pregnancy because every pregnancy puts the mother to a risk of exposing herself to rhesus positive red blood cells of her new baby(Lamb, 2015).
    13. Its serum complement system which represent a major component of innate immunity, participate in inflammation as well as act to facilitate adaptive immune response(Wilkins, 2011). This system assist antibodies and phagocytic cells clear pathogen from the living organism.



    Lamb, B. C. (2015). Human Diversity: Its Nature, Extent, Causes and Effects on People. New York: World Scientific.

    Wilkins, R. (2011). Oxford Handbook of Medical Sciences. OUP Oxford: Oxford.