Culture is an important factor for advertising agencies to discuss and think about the outcome for an advert. This report explains the definition of identical and distinct advertising. It compares the relationship between identical and distinct advertising in Hong Kong and UK, and explains why the advertising agencies made those decisions through the case study of this report.
Marketing is an essential aspect of business success. In global companies, there is high need for advertisement, with focus being on customer satisfaction no matter the host country of the company. In order to attain customer satisfaction and subsequently customer loyalty, companies employ different advertisement strategies in various countries. The role played by advertising in ensuring business success is above national and organizational cultures. This is because cultures determine the behaviour of potential consumers as well as their tendencies to purchase products. Organizations therefore consider organizational cultures prior to deciding on the type of advertising to carry out and the contents of the various adverts.
Once an organization decides to diversify in its geographical locations, the need to engage in the study of the diverse national cultures takes precedence in the company’s organization. The consideration of culture results in two different types of advertising in the multi-national companies. These advertising strategies are identical and distinct advertising. While identical advertising is suitable for use in the promotion of products which have similar applications across countries and whose purchase is different in the various countries, distinct advertising is more relevant to products where the product use differs across national borders. The result is that differences exist in the advertising strategies applied by different companies.
In some organizations, a single marketing strategy suffices across several nations (Rosengren et al, 2013). This is referred to as identical advertising. In other companies, the advertising strategies change depending on the cultures of countries in which the organization is located. This is referred to as distinct advertising. Distinct advertising is based on the cultural characteristics of the particular country of business. On the other hand, identical advertising across countries is more suitable where the customer demand for the product being marketed is not subject to the cultural distinctions across countries (Piana 2003).
Besides the product applications and the cultural distinctions, advertising strategies are also subject to the projected gains from the marketed products. For instance, it would not be reasonable to engage extra finances in carrying out distinct advertisement for a project knowing that the incremental profits as a result of the advertisement are insignificant. In this case, the economic situation of the host country plays an important role in the decision of whether to engage in distinct advertising or not. The predicted market potential also influences the decision to use a distinct advert or not. Advertisement is therefore a function of several factors. This means that while it may be confirmed that differences exist in advertising strategies across countries, culture may not be the only reason behind the application of distinct and identical advertising in multi-national corporations.
This report focuses on the advertising strategies used in the UK and in Hong Kong and how the countries’ cultures are applied to achieve the desired advertising objectives. The research will be carried out using both primary and secondary methods. In carrying out the primary study, a questionnaire based survey will be used.
Importance of Culture in Advertising
Culture plays an important role in advertising effectiveness since it leads to a modification of consumer behaviour. For example, in a culture where decency and traditional values are upheld, companies are obliged to adhere to these cultures for their marketing to be effective (Solberg 2002). For example, highly revealing fashions may not be welcome in conservative cultures and may be viewed with contempt rather than appeal. It is therefore mandatory for companies to study the cultural demands of any potential host companies and to put these demands and values into consideration when designing adverts for television or printed media (Perner 2015). However relates to products whose demand is affected by cultural traditions such as food and fashion items. For items such as phones like Nokia and refreshments such as coke, this type of cultural significance is limited. The focus has to be placed on modernity cultures and advertisement strategies be laid down to address the same (Perner 2015).
Aims and Objectives
The purpose of the proposed study is to compare and contrast advertising in the UK and in Hong Kong with focus on distinct and identical advertising strategies. In order to achieve this end, the specific aims that will be addressed by the study include:
- To find the relationship between advertisement and culture in the UK and Hong Kong
- To compare and contrast identical and distinct advertising strategies in the two countries
- To determine whether culture plays a significant role in advertising
One concept in advertising that has immense importance in companies and which is the basis for the discussion of distinct and identical advertising strategies is the aspect of international advertising. The subjects of identical and distinct advertising are both concepts of consideration only in cases where there is need for international advertising. International advertising is one of the major business activities in the world in the contemporary times. This is explained to be as a result of the expansion of companies into new geographical locations and the significant penetration of the media in the new geographical locations.
The impacts of these expansions are that companies are increasingly being expected to market their products in the locations into which they are expanding. One major characteristic of international advertising is that it is coordinated from a single location and implemented in different locations (Mooij 2013). This means that for companies such as Procter and Gamble which have operations in various countries, the coordination of the marketing activities is carried out in a single location. This means that even though companies may spend funds on marketing their products in new locations, there is still need for effective market research to be carried out independently in these different countries.
International advertising has been distinguished from global advertising in that while international advertising relates to global organizations and not to particular brands, global advertising has more to do with global brands (Khanna 2011). For instance, Coca Cola, being a global brand benefits more from global advertising than it would from international advertising. This argument is based on the awareness that Coca Cola has similar use in all countries. Its advertising is therefore directed to the global consumers. On the other hand, a company like Procter and Gamble which engages in multinational operations but has several product brands, some of which are not globally recognized may engage in international advertising. In this context, international advertising may be considered similar to distinct advertising where the marketing strategies for a particular product brand differ across the globe. However, this does not imply that companies engaging in international advertising cannot engage in global advertising, particularly if they have several product brands to their name. In other contexts, multi-national advertisement is also used to refer to international advertisement (Khanna 2011).
Another aspect that comes to light with reference to international advertisement is multi domestic advertisement. This is applicable to product brands which may or may not be recognized globally but which are in various states of development (DeMooij 2005). For instance, in advertising Apple’s iPhone, different strategies may be employed in different countries, not because the brand is not global but because it is in different stages of development in the various countries. In this case, the role of culture is not as inherent as in the advertisement of similar products across the globe. Still in the example of the iphone, the advertisement strategies may be different since as demand for the iPhone 5 rises in the third world countries, the demand for iPhone 7 rises in the more developed countries.
This simply means that the company has to determine who the target market for their products are prior to engaging in international or multi domestic advertisement as this plays an important role in the determination of the strategy to be adopted. The role played by culture in determining consumer behaviour is immense and has to be considered in any form of advertisement that goes beyond national borders (Beamer and Varner 2008).
Culture in the UK and Hong Kong
Although the culture of Hong Kong and the UK will be described using the 5 dimensions of culture given by Hofstede, only 4 of the 5 are significant in the analysis of advertisement in the two countries. The rationale for using these dimensions to describe the two nations’ cultures is that it is these same dimensions that will be related to advertisement, and which will help in the recognition of the cultural impacts on the business world. In Hong Kong, the Power Distance rating is given by Yeh (n.d) as being 68. This indicates a significantly high value of power distance in the country. This is explained as being probably due to the history of the nation. Castells et al (1990) explain that social stratification has been prevalent in the Hong Kong culture for ages, since the early 1900s. The evidence for social stratification is seen as being capitalism and marginalization of some communities such as the boat people. Due to this wide gap between the rich and the poor, the government also operates in a manner that increase the distance even further. This social stratification has led to the high Power Distance rating in Hong Kong.
On the other hand, the UK also records a slightly low value of Power Distance. The Power Distance ratings for the countries in the UK are ranged between 20 and 35. The lowest i.e. Ireland, has a power distance rating of 21 while Britain has a rating of 35. These ratings indicate that the social stratification in the UK is significantly low. The reason behind this low stratification could be due to the modernization in the country. Countries with high Power Distance are often associated with autocratic leadership both within the corporate organizations and the national governance. It is therefore expected that any advertisement strategies employed in the countries would be matching the power distance as well as other cultural dimensions.
Secondly, Hong Kong had a lower score on uncertainty avoidance as compared to countries in the UK. For instance, Ireland scored 35. The implication of this is that in Hong Kong, Decision making is most likely to be characterized by flexibility, tolerance for diverse opinions and risk taking. This means that it is more probable to find creative advertisements in Hong Kong than you may find in the UK. However, since the countries in the UK also had scores less than 50, it can be said that the uncertainty avoidance dimension in the UK is also low. The level of flexibility and risk taking is however commensurate to the expected returns and the countries’ scores in this dimension.
Individualism versus collectivism as another dimension given by Hofstede; plays an important role in the characterization of a given society’s cultural values. In Hong Kong, the individualism versus collectivism score was rated at 25 while in the UK, a record of 70 was obtained. This clearly indicates that while Hong Kong is highly collectivist, the UK culture is predominantly individualistic. The finding on Hong Kong is also supported by Cheung and Tam (1999) who claim that the position of the family in the Hong Kong culture is high, with polygamous marriages being acceptable as well as communal living. On the other hand, the UK has no similar structure which enables communal sharing amongst all the available members of extended families.
In terms of Masculinity versus femininity, Hong Kong has a score of 57 while the UK has 43. These values imply that while the Hong Kong society is still considered very masculine, the UK society has shifted in paradigm towards a more feminine response. The Hong Kong culture has continued to support masculinity although this has been reducing in recent years. The origin of this culture was the traditional belief and practice of the patriarchal male figure in Hong Kong. Similarly, the UK also had patriarchal male figures in the past although this has changed over the years. Currently, the work force in Hong Kong is also stratified into gendered roles albeit to a lower degree than it was in the past.
In addition to the mentioned cultural dimensions, the long term versus short term orientation dimension rating may also contribute to a slight extent towards the consideration of culture in advertisement. The future orientation score in Hong Kong was also found to be slightly lower compared to that in the UK. This is probably because the UK has to consider the implications of their actions prior to engaging. A high score in the dimension indicates that the country in question has the tendency to consider the national stability as being based on the relationship between people; and the belief that the family is the basis of all human relations. It is thus expected that in a country such as Hong Kong which has a high collectivism, the family also takes centre place in all relationships. The outcome is therefore predictable since the high collectivism is indicative of a robust social society.
Demographic profile of the UK and Hong Kong
As at July 2014, the UK population was approximately 63 million with a population growth rate of 0.54 percent. The most populous cities in the UK include London, Birmingham, Manchester, West Yorkshire and others. In these populous cities, populations greater than 800,000 people exist. Most of the citizens of the UK are urbanized, i.e. 79.6 percent of the population. The rate of urbanization is also increasing at 0.76 percent of the rate of annual population change. This high rate of urbanization can be related to the individualistic cultural characteristic that has been associated with the UK. Apart from this, the UK also has a large ethnic variety of citizens. While most of the UK citizens are white, other races also exist. For Instance, Blacks/ Caribbean/ African citizens comprise of 3 percent of the population and Indians comprise of 2.3 percent of the population (CIA 2014). This diversity in ethnic backgrounds brings about factors such as high individualism, high social stratification and diverse work forces. In order for organizations to tap into this potential, it is necessary that each of the ethnic groups be represented in business adverts, or a singular representation be used for the development of a market reaching functional advertisement. It is in similar situations that distinct advertisement proves to be effective towards the achievement of organizational goals and the implementation of the organization’s strategic plan.
In Hong Kong, the current population comprises of approximately 7 million individuals with a population growth rate of 0.40 percent per year. As at 2011, it was reported that 100 percent of the population in Hong Kong was urbanized, with an increasing urbanization rate of 1.04 percent per year (2014). Based on these facts, it can be concluded that while the UK has lower urbanization levels compared to Hong Kong, it still leads in individualism. Thus, the individualism versus collectivism dimension can be said to be independent of the level of urbanization in any country. Also, the major ethnic group in Hong Kong is Chinese. The Chinese comprise of 93.1 percent of the total population (CIA 2014). This means that due to the prevalence of a single language and a singles ethnic group, it is probable that cultural similarities also prevail within Hong Kong. Cultural similarities also often act as potential sources of influence in the corporate world. Moreover, they also contribute to the collectivism that has been experienced in Hong Kong. The contribution of the demographic profile in the analysis of culture is limited although it provides a basis for the explanation of various cultural dimensions.
Culture and advertisement in the UK and Hong Kong
While the UK occupies almost the same position as countries like Germany and Britain on Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, Hong Kong is significantly different from these countries (Jones 2007). Consequently, the advertising strategies used in the UK are more likely to be suitable for Germany and Britain and significantly distinct from those in Hong Kong. It would thus be more reasonable to compare advertising and culture in Hong Kong with that in any of these countries as it gives a clear vision of cross-cultural advertising in different countries (Leiss 2013).
Currently, the advertising segment in the UK is clearly attuned to the Western culture with individualistic tendencies. In addition to being individualistic, the advertising in the UK is also masculine and characterized with low uncertainty avoidance. These dimensions as described by Nguyen (2014) as being essential in determining the appeal to which advertising should be focused. The advertisement industry has paid particular attention to these cultural dimensions as observed in various adverts, both in print and in the electronic media. The focus is particularly prevalent in global companies’ goods such as Nokia and Coca-Cola. On the other hand, the Hong Kong cultural perspective is described effectively through high collectivism ratings, high femininity and low uncertainty avoidance (Chan & Cheng 2002). These differences in cultural dimensions’ ratings bring to light the need for cross- cultural differences in advertising.
Identical advertising in Hong Kong and the UK
The idea behind identical advertising is that it addresses the marketing needs of organizations without incurring any additional costs on advertising. This is done through the use of similar advertising for the same products in different countries. Identical advertising for some products works well in countries where the cultural dimensions are more or less similar and which occupy the same ratings in cultural dimensions according to Hofstede’s characteristics (Rosengren et al 2013).
In advertising, several appeals are often addressed by advertisement designs. In the UK, particular focus is placed on various appeals as is in line with the cultural dimensions in the UK. For instance, various products advertisements in both Hong Kong and the UK are based on themes of technology, modernity and quality. A specific example with regards to this is the Coca-cola advertisement in both countries. While this advertisement is different in the two countries, one similarity between the two is the fact that those two focus on the collectivism dimension of culture in both countries. The adverts both aim at appealing to the consumers’ needs for affiliation by alluding to the value of sharing. Through the inclusion of friends’ names on the Coke cans pet bottles and giving consumers the opportunities to identify friends with whom they would like to share their coke. With regards to technology, advertisement in both countries has been aimed at indicating technological growth in the development of various products.
This technological growth is also depicted in the Coca-Cola advert in both countries, first through the mode of advertising itself and the strategy in choice. This is to say that effectively managing to vary the labelling in the packaging containers within each country, the Coca-Cola Company only shows immense advances in technology. Similarly, Nokia adverts for Nokia’s product Lumia in both countries also focus on this technological development with regards to the product features and the depiction of the latest models as being capable of achieving customer demands with respect to Technological advancement (Nguyen 2014). This is achieved through enlightening potential customers during advertisement on the strengths of the product in technological issues such as Bluetooth and wifi connectivity.
The theme of modernity is also prevalent in the advertisement strategies used by multinational organizations in both countries. Modernity is depicted through the portrayal of features such as fashion differentiation, and adoption of technological advances (Mooij 2009). In addition to this, the urbane lifestyle depicted in various adverts also indicates modernity in every essence of the word. The Christian Dior Fragrance is an important example of this concept. While marketing a fragrance brand, the televised and printed advert across both countries of study depicts a blond beauty in revealing clothing.
This gives the message that in the modern world, the focus is on glitz and glamour. This advert is however acceptable and relevant in the two countries despite their relatively different cultural values. While appealing to the technological growth and changes towards modernity, companies do not trade off the quality of their products (Mooij 2009).
The product quality is depicted in various adverts through an indication of customer satisfaction in consuming them (Chan & Cheng 2002). The Coca-Cola advert still plays a role in the need for product quality depiction in adverts. For instance, it is clearly shown that sharing a coke with friends brings about satisfaction in various aspects. The energy content and its refreshing qualities are clearly highlighted in the adverts. Likewise, the adverts for Nokia “Lumia” also show the same confirmation of quality. The portrayal of Nokia “Lumia” as capable of satisfying the needs of consumers with regards to entertainment demands as well as the internet connectivity is clearly aimed at portraying Nokia as possessing more superior qualities than other phone brands (Nguyen 2014). An additional feature that is focused on improving product quality and making consumers aware of the same is through the development of windows phones, a concept that has been adopted by Nokia too. This is aimed at improving the PR for the product in both countries and to make consumers understand that the product comes with additional qualities (Wang & Yan 2011).
Another similarity that comes to light with regards to advertising in the UK and Hong Kong is the focus that companies place on product branding during advertisement. For products to gain market share, companies strive to create brand strengths that aim at attracting more consumers. It is the position of these companies to ensure that their product brands are effectively identified by their segment markets hence they design advertisements with this in mind (Powell 2013). Each company desires to maintain a strong brand presence in the international market by focusing on strategies of brand improvement in the various companies (Wang & Yan 2011). For instance, the Coca-Cola Company has managed to maintain a strong presence in both countries by adhering to the customer needs for refreshment and to deliver the promises made through advertisement. An example of such promises is in the “Share a Coke” campaign where individuals can submit names to be printed on cans and pet bottles.
While the similarities in advertising abound in both countries, some distinctions are also present. These differences play an important role on attracting and retaining customers in the particular countries by addressing their particular needs in terms of culture and tradition (Mooij 2009).
Distinct Advertising in the UK and Hong Kong
Distinct advertisement means that additional costs must be incurred in every country since the design of the adverts takes place independently in every country (Rosengren et al 2013). This is because distinct advertising places focus on the cultural values of a country hence resulting in different aspects in the advertisement of the same product in different countries. The characteristics also form a basis for the design of distinct adverts for different countries. For instance, in Peoples’ republic of China, the cultural diversity plays an important role in the determination of advertisement strategies (Rosengren et al 2013). On the other hand, the UK has no significant cultural diversity.
According to Hofstede’s framework of cultural dimensions, Hong Kong rates high in collectivism while the UK is more individualistic. Based on these dimensions, advertising in the UK is more focused on distinctive advertising that places importance on the unique or elegant features of the product. On the other hand, advertising in Hong Kong is more focused on collectivism tendencies that focus on the popular (Moon & Chara 2005). Coke advertising in the UK uses individual popular names in the “Share a Coke” campaign relating to the individualistic nature of the UK culture. In Hong Kong, the cans and pet bottles are labelled with both names and popular phrases. The use of popular phrases in the bottles and cans in Hong Kong is a clear indication of the popularity appeal that the advert seeks to attain. The differences in these seemingly insignificant issues go a long way in attaining market shares due to advertising (Nixon 2003).
Secondly, advertisement in the UK also focuses more on independence and freedom rather than on the importance of family and affiliation as is depicted in the advertisement in Hong Kong (Moon & Chara 2005). In the Nokia advert, showing individuals enjoying themselves together depicts the appeal to adventure and enjoyment, both of which are associated with freedom and independence. However, the multi cultural background of Hong Kong is shown clearly through the inclusion of more individuals in the adverts for both Nokia and Coca-cola in the Hong Kong Market. These differences in advertising strategies also play an important role in achieving customer loyalty and subsequently retaining customers in the international market.
Relationship between Identical and Distinct Adverts in Hong Kong and the UK
Identical and distinct advertising play different roles with regards to achieving the desired end that is to develop in terms of brand awareness. For multi-national companies, strategies that incorporate both identical and distinct advertisement must be employed for effectiveness in the marketing process. This is because while identical advertising addresses the issues relating to the product features, distinct advertising addresses issues related to the individual target market characteristics (Chan & Cheng 2002). For instance, identical advertising for food products may aim at depicting the products as being palatable, sweet of high quality and necessary. At the same time, when the target markets have different cultures or values, the advertisements may tend to focus on the particular cultural values of each country (Solberg 2002). In this way, the same food product may be depicted as having high nutritional value in the UK and at the same time adjustments could be made to accommodate high pepper concentrations in HK hence aligned to the dining cultures of the country.
In carrying out the proposed study, a qualitative research method will be used. This method involves both primary and secondary studies. The primary study will be carried out by collecting data using questionnaires from both students and professionals in various companies regarding their advertisement strategies and their effectiveness (Bricki 2007). The secondary study will be based on relevant literature collected through content analysis. The study will be comparative/ correlational and exploratory in nature, with the correlation aspect being based on comparison of the advertisement scene in the UK and Hong Kong and the exploratory aspect being based on primary data collected through interviews. The study is described as exploratory due to its effectiveness in attaining theoretical data that is desired in a qualitative study (Bricki 2007). In data analysis, repeated summary will be used to summarize the data that is obtained from the various sources and to use the final points in coming to a conclusion regarding distinct and identical advertising in Hong Kong and the UK.
Primary data collection
The primary data collection procedure was carried out using a survey questionnaire method. The survey questionnaires had to be issued out to potential respondents where they are found. In order to achieve the survey objectives, various considerations had to be made. The reason for the study was explained to the respondents so that they could understand why they were needed. The researcher therefore did an introduction with every potential respondent. Before giving out the survey questionnaires, the researcher introduced himself to the respondents then went explained the other research details. Based on this explanation, the respondents were then asked whether they would participate in the study. Participation was required to be out of will and not through coercion hence the need for requesting potential respondents. The respondents were asked to fill in their occupation before answering the other questions, but their names were not asked.
When doing the survey, the researcher maintained being polite and respectful to the respondents. The reason why it was necessary to be polite and respectful towards the participants is that they may lose trust in the study itself and refuse to participate. Apart from this, the participants’ information will also be analysed and presented in a fair manner which encourages the use of that information for better understanding by potential readers
The role played by culture in advertising effectiveness is tied closely to the cultural dimensions in a particular country. Advertising is a mode of communication between those people who are marketing a product and potential users. The main reason for advertising is to persuade those who may buy with the aim of getting potential buyers for an organization’s products. The relevance of culture in the advertising context is that is enables this persuasion of the buyer to be achieved. Advertising creates relationships based on trust between producers and consumers of products. Through the application of culture in the advertising context, organizations can develop these relationships more easily. This is because culture allures through its values which are cannot be shared with other cultures. Essential components of one culture cannot be transferred to another culture successfully. This means that through targeting the cultural values possessed by people in the target market, organizations can achieve increased unity with the targeted market population and thus improving the probability of advertising success. This is important especially in different cultural values are adopted and applied in the creation of advertisement. The respondents to the survey also confirmed the importance of communication modes in the delivery of advertisement information. According to the survey results, those who participated were able to identify that some adverts were different from the media outputs while others were identical and to mention the advantages and disadvantages of the identical and different adverts. For example, the respondents said that Coca Cola adverts with names on the bottles were similar in both countries. They also said that this similarity is an advantage because buyers know that it is the same product that they are purchasing whichever country they are in. Also, they said that different adverts are also important because people in different countries have different values.
One aspect of culture that differs across nations is that of communication. With respect to this, the value placed on different communication strategies determines the potential of success when those strategies are used in advertisement. From the survey, it was also established that the potential consumers considered adverts that were communicated using methods that showed an understanding of their countries non verbal communication methods and cultures as being more attractive to customers and therefore were more likely to enable brand recognition. For instance, many respondents described the advert associated with Coca Cola as being persuasive due to the communication it sends on the importance of association. The y said that this advert can be used around the world because it is personal, it does not relate to a particular culture. Also, the mode that Coca Cola has used in this advert was also described as an effective communication strategy since it draws attention through the use of names.
This is in line with the reports of various literatures. For instance, Trompenaars described nations as either high or low in terms of the communication methods, the role of the communication mode used in advertising determines the way customers see the advert and the product which it is promoting and also how the product will perform in the market. High context societies depend on the application of several non-verbal communication methods such as body language to pass the important message while the low context societies are mainly dependent on verbal languages. Verbal may include any form of communication which is based on the use of hearing to receive the intended message such as when one is passing a message on radio. The high context communication may however refer to applications which involve the use of varied communication methods such as posters and various multimedia (Beamer and Varner 2008). The mode of communication that a company intends to use in advertising therefore also depends on the culture of the target population. Although the communication context is important in advertising, culture also influences advertising in terms of the value placed on several other aspects.
Culture being immensely diverse, is also connected to various concepts such as time, relationships, risk and power. The importance placed on these concepts by various cultures determines the potential for success of advertisement in the varied cultures. DeMooij (2005) claim that one sure way of getting success through advertisement is by forming relationships between the product brands and the consumers using the role of culture.
This can only be achieved after establishing an understanding of the concept of culture as a system of control for customers, which in most cases passed down from one generation to another. This passage involves the transfer of values from the older generations to the younger ones. Similarly, advertising applies the difference of values in terms of product brands and their developers. Brand differentiation is achieved in advertisement through the application of culture to distinguish brand characteristics. The correct relationship can only be established between brands and the potential consumers through the transfer of consumer values in marketing the brands. This helps to place the marketed brands in a higher position as compared to the competitor products. In this, the survey respondents reported that they are able to tell difference between distinct and identical adverts. The respondents said that identical adverts look similar such as one for Coke while distinct advert look different in different countries.
The survey results also showed that most respondents would purchase products whose advertisement was attracting to them if they are identical or distinct. When asked to mark factors which they considered as important for an advertisement to be considered attracting, the survey participants indicated that they preferred products which showed the values that they like in their country and those that are personal. The respondents also said that this is one advantage of distinct advertising since it is able to consider different values. This only means that since some of the personal values are learnt or adopted from others, they may be an important element in cultural analyses for advertisement planning.
Multinational companies operating in both UK and Hong Kong have seemingly understood the importance of culture in advertisement planning and implementation. This is clearly depicted in the relevant application of identical and distinct advertising strategies in the two countries as described in the literature review. This is also confirmed from the examples given by the survey respondents and their description of identical and distinct advertising. From what they said, it can be concluded that the two methods of advertising have been used in the two countries very well. This implies that while multi-national corporations engage in intensive research and development for the enhancement of their market penetration levels, culture plays a central role in ensuring the success of advertisement efforts.
The study has been successful in achieving its objectives. The relationship between distinct advertisement and identical advertisement has been determined with particular focus on Hong Kong and the UK. Moreover, the importance of culture in advertisement has also been established. The major limitation faced in carrying out this study was in finding country specific information about Hong Kong and the UK. It is therefore important for more studies to be carried out in this area to expand the dearth of information available.
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