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Sample Paper on Understand Different Approaches to Management and Leadership

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Sample Paper on Understand Different Approaches to Management and Leadership


The overall management and leadership in particular within organizations plays ale in the overall effectiveness that will be realized. Most particularly, through the management styles that are assumed, the performance of individual employees will be affected hence resulted to an overall impact in the levels witnessed in the organization. In attempt to realize the desired levels of operations within organizations, the executive often adopt the use of a number of leadership styles and management theories that in most cases influences the behavior of the employees. The theories and the styles assumed will in most instances vary from one organization to the other depending on the nature of the organization and the lines of operations assumed. In line with this, the paper will focus on the application of various leadership styles and management theories with close references to various organizations (Greenstein, F, 2009). The elucidations will done with close focus to the operations of Karma Communications Group, a marketing agency bas in London.  The company has engaged in promotional activities for a number of organizations. The use of online marketing platforms besides other measures has been assumed by the entity in order to achieve favorable competition within the market of operation. The use of various organization theories in the discussion will aid in the assertion of the various courses of actions assumed at various levels in the organization. The challenges that each of the approaches pose to the management of the organization will also be a center of interest in the discussion (Sapru, R, 2008).



Leadership styles
  1. Democratic leadership styles

The leadership style highly values the aspect of involvement of persons into various procedures of the entity. In the course of formation and subsequent implementation of these regulations, extensive consultation is allowed with employees at various levels in order to influence the adoption of facets that in the sole interest of every member of the organization. Every decision to be made within the organization is only undertaken after involvement of the employees besides other key stakeholders. As a result of these involvements, in the event of change adoption, cases of resulting resistance among members of the entity are often curbed owing to the involvement of employees in these procedures (Sapru, R, 2008). In the various investment activities of the company, Karma Communications Group, involvement of various stakeholders both within the internal and external environment has resulted into the effectiveness of the company. In the first investment of the company in Karmarama, the company highly involved persons that resulted into success of the investment.

The use of democratic form of leadership in organizations often results into motivation among employees as they will feel part of the organization through the involvement procedures. This will generally improve the resulting performance level of every employee.

  1. Autocratic leadership style

The form of leadership bestows a lot of power on the top managers. The function of decision making solely lies with the leaders. Owing to centralization of power among the leaders, the decision made is often final and cannot be challenged. In most cases, this form of leadership results into the adoption of operational measures that are not in the interest of every member of the organization. However, due to lack of consultation in the course of decision making process, time wasting resulting from long consultation will be curbed. This will result into general effectiveness in terms of time management (Sapru, R, 2008).Owing to the large staff of 250, Karma Communications Group at times engages the use of dictatorial leadership style in order to curb cases of long decision making processes.

  1. Transactional leadership style

The form of leadership focuses on the use of teams in order to achieve high performance among individuals. In order to influence the performance levels of these teams, the use of various reinforcement measures are keenly taken into consideration. This will entail the use of rewards in order to influence active performance among the teams towards the achievement of the intended goals. Among the forms of rewards that can be assumed includes the use of salary increment in the event of attainment of the required operational levels. These various forms of rewards will entice the involved groups towards the achievement of the designed goals. On the other hand, managers can also adopt the use of negative reinforcement measures such as retrenchment or salary deductions for members who do not perform as desired.  Through the use of this form of leadership style, managers are able to directly influence the performance of member of the organization (Greenstein, F, 2009). One of the sole objectives of the company, Karma Communications Group, has been to develop creative advertisement mechanism for their clients. In order to achieve this, in 2011, the executive developed the use of groups in order to meet these stipulated standards.

  1. Transformational leadership style

The form of leadership solely relies on communication within the organization in order to attain the desired levels of operation among employees. In most cases, top to bottom form of communication will be adopted in order to allow for effective coordination of operations. The use of free forms of communication will serve as a motivation factor to employee as they will easily and effectively rely their grievances hence speedy corrective measures.

  1. Laissez-faire style

The form of leadership entails decision making where workers tasked with making certain decisions. The principle of delegation of role is central in the application of the style in organization. Through the use delegation of roles, effective completion of tasks is commonly witnessed under this form of leadership (Greenstein, F, 2009). This form of leadership

Organization theories and management practices

Theories are of concepts that are used to explicate various situations. Through the use of organization theories, there are certain pertinent concepts that are key in the managerial activities theories that will be vital in the various managerial practices.

  1. Classical theory

The theory was put forth by Fredrick Taylor and elucidated a number of key facets that managers can adopt within the operations of the organization in order to influence desired operational levels. The theory resulted into the development of other organization models namely, scientific management theory and administrative theory (Gautam, V & Batra, S, 2011).

The model presents four vital aspects that managers should integrate in the course of their managerial activities in order to influence the performance of employees. The four aspects that are elucidated in the model include:

  1. Scientific management approach
  • Designing the most appropriate measures to undertake tasks.

The concept explains that managers should initially get involved in critically analysis of existing factors within the organization in order to ascertain the best measure that could conform to the nature of the organization. In addition, the theory presents the need for managers to consider the existing skills among personnel before adopting the various strategies. The involvement of these various forms of analysis is to allow for the adoption of the most appropriate strategies that could improve the general operational levels. This will also involve adopting competitive strategies for the completion of every task (Greenstein, F, 2009). In the course of the company’s adoption of the new advertisement measures, there was extensive involvement and specification of tasks that has seen the organization adopt highly competitive advertisement measures.

  • Matching each worker with each and every task to be performed.

The aspect of matching to allowed employees to engage in activities that they are well trained.  Through allowing employees to participate in duties that they are well skilled, effective and timely completion of activities will be made manifest (Gautam, V & Batra, S, 2011). This will involve carrying out analysis programs such as performance analysis in order to determine the existing gaps between employees’ skills and their skills. This will help in proper matching activities. In line with Karma Communications Group, the aspects of matching activities and skills became manifest in most of the organizational recruitment activities.

  • Supervision

Through employee supervision in the course of execution of roles, activities among individuals will be designed to meet the desired stated goals. The use of reinforcement measures that will include both positive and negative mechanisms will aid in influencing employees towards achieving specific objectives. The large staff capacity of Karma Communications Group has witnessed constant use of supervision in order to align every course of action by employees towards achievement of the intended objectives.

  • Planning and control

The aspect of proper planning will aid in the timely completion of tasks besides ensuring that tasks are performed as stipulated.  In addition to the planning activities, control measures should be put in place in order to allow for appropriate direction of every organization activity towards the achievement of the overall goals (Dzimbiri, L, 2009).

  1. Administrative approach

The model presented the need for adoption of universal concepts in the managerial activities. Through these various strategies used in management, a number of different operational levels will be effected in the organization. This will entail consideration of various organization facets that are critical in influencing the overall effectiveness of the entity.

  1. Bureaucratic theory

The theory presents the need for mangers to define key structures that should be followed in the course of every organization operation.  This involves the development of hierarchies that will be adhered to by members of the organization. Among the hierarchies that should be developed include, reporting channels, communication channels, and other forms of operations that deserves key defined levels. However, long procedures will compromise the general effectiveness of the organization. This has witnessed Karma Communications Group, adopt realignment of its operational structures in order to eliminate the numerous impediments in the reporting lines.

In order to curb cases of conflicts that could result in the organization regarding reporting channels, proper stipulations of the networks to be assumed should defined. The lines of reporting to be assumed should be in accordance with the positions held by individuals.

The need for division of labor is also elucidated in the theory. The concept of labor division is to allow effectiveness in terms of timely completion of tasks and quality realization (Dzimbiri, L, 2009).

  1. Contingency theory

The theory majorly focuses on the aspect of organization conflict. According to the theory, conflicts are common in organization operations hence the need for managers to adopt measures that will help in solving the manifested conflicts rather adoption of prior preventive measures.

Among the strategies that the model explicates to be essential in solving conflicts within the organization is through involvement of persons in various operational measures. Consultative actions will allow managers to undertake forums that are aimed at establishing a joint conflict resolution mechanism.

  1. Human relations approach

The theory presents the need for managers to be keen on s number of aspects within the organization that are directly linked to human resource. Most specifically the theory presents an array of factors that will result to achievement of motivation among employees besides those measures that would improve the overall performance of employees. Aspects of employee development are illustrated to be of essence in the determination of the organization motivation. Adoption of training programs tailored towards the improvement of skills among the employees will play a central role in achieving motivation among individuals.

Other motivation techniques like offering of promotion opportunities are also elucidated to be of essence in the realization of motivation within the organization. The theory explains the need for managers to critically identify the various factors within the organization that can be integrated in the operations in order to influence the employees’ desired behaviors (Dzimbiri, L, 2009).

  1. Systems approach

The theory elucidates that organization is composed of numerous elements that are interrelated and vital towards the achievement of various the actual goals of the enterprise. Proper identification of these components are therefore of great essence for effectiveness. The theory opines that either open or closed system can be witnessed in the organization. A closed system is explained to be that which allows for only the interaction of components within the organization. On the other hand, open systems allows numerous elements from the external environments. In the operations of Karma Communications Group, a number of aspects are essence in meeting the obligations of both the organization and those of external environment. Close working relationship with the legal environment will help in the attainment of defined desired standards.

Mangers should be able to engage these various existing components and rally them towards meeting the intended aims of the entity.



In line with the above elucidation, it is made evident that leadership styles and a number of managerial concepts are pertinent in the realization of effectiveness of an organization. Leadership styles directly influences organizational dynamics that will be witnessed. As a result of this, there is need for leaders to initially undertake thorough examination of components pertained in the styles to be adopted before the actual implementation in the organization.  The adoption of these leadership styles to be implemented in the organization will also depend on the nature of the entity and so the need for managers to fully understand the various organization elements. Moreover, the various managerial theories are also presented to be of great essence in influencing the realization of organizational goals. The aspect of human resource management is central in a number of theories hence there is need for management to constantly consider proper employees management in all aspects of the organization. In the event of adopting mechanisms tailored towards improving the performance of employees, involvement of all stakeholders will be necessary so as to influence adoption of measures that directly meets the immediate needs of employees (Daft, R, 2010). In the light of Karma Communications Group, there is need for the organization to constantly review the various facets of operational at various levels in order to ensure high levels of effectiveness. Specifically, in regard to the various investments activities of the enterprise, the management should outline the key competitive factors to integrate. Apart from outlining the vital procedures, this will help in cubing the possible mistakes that could compromise the realized qualities.















Daft, R. L. (2010). Organization theory and design. Mason, Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Dzimbiri, L. B. (2009). Organisation and management theories: an African focus: Integrating structure, people, processes and the environment for human happiness. Göttingen: Cuvillier.

Gautam, V., & Batra, S. (2011). Organisation development systems: A study in organisation behaviour and organisation management. New Delhi: Concept Pub. Co.

Greenstein, F. I. (2009). The presidential difference: Leadership style from FDR to Barack Obama. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Sapru, R. K. (2008). Administrative theories and management thought. New Dehli: PHI Learning.

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