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Sample Essay Paper on Answers

The ratification of the Maastricht Treaty resulted in the commitment of the members of the European Union to economic and political integration with its effect on economic integration being highlighted by the free movement of goods, persons, services, and capital throughout member states as well as the use of a common currency, having common foreign and security policies, having a common justice system, and cooperation between police and other authorities of member states on issues such as crime, terrorism, and immigration. Maastricht Treaty has resulted in close economic and political ties among European Union members, although challenges in perspectives such as taxation remain evident and reforms towards the same continue to be necessary.

  • The European Union has a federal pattern in that it is divided into executive, parliamentary and judicial branches that comprise of the Council of Ministers, the European Parliament, and the European Court of Justice (ECJ) respectively. The union’s operations are dictated by regulations, directives, and decisions binding member states, an insinuation that the opinion of every member state on various issues has to be taken into consideration. The EU has a commission responsible for initiating policy and supervising how the policy is observed by member states of the union. Besides, the commission gives proposals and supervises how laws and formulated policies are executed. Of the mentioned EU branches, the Council of Ministers makes key decisions on behalf the EU, the European Parliament apart from playing a consultative role, can make amendments and adopts legislations, while the EC has the responsibility of revoking any measures or decisions that are incompatible with the Rome Treaty. In fact, every decision made by the ECJ cannot be repealed or appealed in national courts of EU member states.
  • Britain’s 155-year rule and colonization of Hong Kong came to an end in 1997 when the latter reverted to China becoming a special administrative region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of China. Although Hong Kong negotiates bilateral agreements and makes major economic decisions on its own, China still has a say on Hong Kong’s matters such as foreign affairs and defense of the SAR, meaning that it somewhat remains a colony of China. Other perspectives such as the free convertibility of the Hong Kong dollar, security markets, foreign exchange, and gold continue to operate as before, meaning that Hong Kong, despite China’s current control, remains a free society with legally protected rights.
  • The Four Asian Tigers comprising of Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan were the most rapidly growing economies in the Asia-Pacific region in the 1980s and 1990s, and they were the only countries in Asia after Japan to move from developing nations to industrialized nations. Moreover, each of these countries has become influential in global trade and development, and is rapidly becoming industrialized and is extending their trading and other economic activities to other parts of Asia and the rest of the world.
  • K. Prahalad’s new concept in the discussion of developing countries and markets, bottom-of-the-pyramid markets (BOPMs), consists of the 4 billion people across the globe with annual incomes lower than $1200 and these markets are not defined by borders but by the pockets of poverty across countries. The 4 billion consumers’ concentration is in LDCs and LLDCs, which according to the UN, are found in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. The fact that these consumers have been ignored by international marketers is because of the belief and misconceptions that they are poor and thus lack resources, regarding technology and money as well as the appropriateness of products and services.
  • Key organizational concepts, corporate, strategic, and tactical planning, help in the achievement of generalized goals, long and short-term goals, as well as the implementation of strategic planning goals respectively. Corporate planning is seen to incorporate generalized goals for the whole enterprise, strategic planning deals with products, capital, research, and the achievement of long and short-term organizational goals, whereas tactical planning focuses on specific actions and allocation of resources that play a part in the implementation of strategic planning goals in specific markets.
  • The international planning process and marketing strategies’ four phases include preliminary analysis and screening, which is also known as matching company or country needs, the definition of target markets and adaptation to the marketing mix, development of the marketing plan, and implementation and control.
  • Contractual agreements, whose basic forms are licensing and franchising, involve the movement, shift, or transfer of technology, processes, trademarks, or human skills from one party to another. Licensing, on one hand, deals with trademark rights, patent rights, and the rights to use technological processes in overseas markets. On the other hand, franchising deals with the provision of a standard package of products, management services, and systems.
  • Product homologation describes the changes mandated by local product and service standards to ensure that products and services meet the physical or mandatory requirements of a new market. These mandatory requirements could include simple package changes and total redesign of the physical core product.
  • According to Everett Rogers, key elements in the diffusion of new ideas include innovation, its communication through specified channels, over time communication of the innovation concept, and communication of the same among the members of a social system. To differentiate diffusion from other types of communication research, the element that ought to be taken into consideration is time.
  • Country-of-origin effect (COE) is defined as any influence that a country of manufacture, assembly or design has on the positive or negative perception of a consumer towards a product, and this is why in the global market today, the place of manufacture affects the image of a brand or product.
  • Virtual expatriates are individuals who manage operations in other countries but do not move there, meaning that they can stay in hotels, make extended visits, or maintain their families at home although they are vulnerable to foreign bugs, crime and violence in foreign countries, loneliness in hotels, and dangerous flights.
  • The main reasons why motivation through individual incentives does not work well in Japan are the emphasis on paternalism and collectivism as well as the country’s system of lifetime employment and seniority. In Japan, it is highly likely that an individual will turn down a financial reward for outstanding individual effort because of the preference of not to dissociate from peers. Essentially, Japan emphasizes more on group effort than individual efforts, and this is why Japanese sales representatives are often motivated when in groups than when as individuals.
  • Compensation plans of American companies vary from one country to another, and this highlights the significant difference in the implementation of compensation plans by American companies between Asian and European countries. European countries use work councils to determine, approve and implement compensation plans while Asian countries such as Japan use cultural differences to determine and implement compensation plans.
  • Cultural differences at the levels of language, nonverbal behaviors, values, thinking and decision-making processes are detrimental to international business negotiations. For instance, language difference may force those involved in international businesses to involve an interpreter or use a common third language, failure to which the negotiation might not take place.
  • Complex negotiation tasks are approached differently in Western and Asian countries with Westerners preferring to divide large task ups into a series of smaller tasks whereas individuals from Asia often prefer to discuss the issues at hand at once in no apparent order making a concession on all issues at the end of the discussion.
  • Follow-up communication remains fundamental to business negotiations and processes with partners and clients from most foreign countries as it is a perfect solution to problems or issues that may arise from business negotiations and processes.




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