Numerous real estates are representation of substantial investment for organizations and this has enabled them to accommodate and support numerous activities while taking into consideration the needs of competition. It is the responsibility of the facilities management to distinguish between the core and non- core business of the organization to ensure that they deliver the best values and customer satisfaction. The multi-site client has been facing numerous challenges on the strategies that it developed in the management of its operations. The major problem results from internal promotion and this necessitates some development in the role of frontline supervisors to manage and motivate employees. The main objective of this report is to outline the theories and principles of managing people an identification of the areas of improvement within the client’s team and the associated benefits.
1.0 Review of human resource planning facilities management
1.1 Approaches to workload planning and workload allocation
Workload planning and workload allocation are desirable activities in an organization. This is because through effective planning and allocation an organization is able to ensure that there are equitable and transparent approaches to the allocation of work activities to the staff within the organization (Kempf, K, et al. 2011, 67). It is the responsibility of senior management to ensure that an effective work planning is used in identifying individuals within the organization that are suited for given task. This is a way of ensuring efficiency and effectiveness in performance of roles for organizational success (Kempf, K et al. 2011, 77). It is important for the management to ensure that every member of staff is busy on the most important work such as people, supplies and money. Workload planning requires that the senior management in an organization to make critical decisions in relation to the model design and the parameters (Haugan, G. 2002, 62). The decisions include:
Planning for the scenario- this requires the management to know the number of units of activities that are to be achieved, recorded and measured.
Demand forecasting- these include the type of activities that the organization must perform in the future and the necessary skills that must be acquired through training, promotion and recruitment to ensure that the organization realizes its long term goals (Haugan,G. 2002, 89).
Action plan- these include the activities that the organization must introduce to measure its inputs. The organization must also plan on way through which the planned activities will realized and this can be through training of staff, promotion or recruitment of new staff (Kempf, K et al 2011, 88).
The organization stands as a beneficiary when the principles of workload planning and work allocation are used. Irrespective of the position that an individual holds in an organization, effective planning will be essential in the sense that it will provide an understanding of what the organization desires to achieve with workload planning, it also helps in the identification of the best approach that the organization can use in allocating responsibilities. In addition, workload planning will ensure that the organization gets the most out of workload planning data considering that it will also enable effective implementation of work allocation strategies throughout the organization (Kempf, K et al. 2011, 112).
Effective workload planning is important to an organization. This can be realized by considering essential factors in the process of planning and allocating members of an organization with responsibility. The availability of resources, for instance, is a factor that largely focuses on resources in terms of skills among employees and additional skills that can be acquired by recruiting more employees (Haugan, G. 2002, 88). The second factor is the ability of the management to understand the organizations; priorities, goals and future developments. The third factor is the ability of the organization to engage in workload planning using the available resources (Miller, A. 2007, 34). The last factor that the organization must consider is to ensure that there is a continuous and regular review to meet the constant changes in the organization. It is important to note that an organization that does not prioritize on workload planning may find its business operations failing to meet organizational goals and in circumstances where such an organization meets its goals there are factors that may slow the operations of the organization (Miller, A. 2007, 39). These factors include lack of surety among employees concerning their daily job description and this affects the level of professionalism within the organization (Kempf, K et al. 2011, 115). The other factor is that the employees may spend more time on a given project neglecting others and this may interfere with the ability of to realize its goals as scheduled. In addition, the organization may waste its resources on a single structure. It is important to note that when an organization is affected by such factors there is a risk of losing its clients and this may affect customer and employee relations within the organization (Kempf, K et al. 2011, 96).
1.2 Evaluation of the effectiveness of workload planning and work allocation in context of an organization’s overall strategy
The main mission of an organization is to ensure that it delivers high quality services which are in line with its purpose of existence, cost effective and fully meets the presents and future needs of the organization and its customers (Vavra, T. 2002, 56). To realize this mission, it is important for the organization to have a set of systems that can be used in the delivery, measuring and monitoring service delivery in relation to the extent to which they meet the needs of its clients (Miller, A. 2007, 36). Information technology platform is one of the systems that an organization can continuously use in workload planning, work allocation, training of employees and to ensure overall development of the organization. Information technology is a system that provides a time limit on the work that is allocated. These limits ensure that the employees that are assigned specific duties work within certain parameters using a set of resources to ensure that they realize a given objective (Kempf, K et al. 2011, 115). The measurement of such allocations by the time that work is completes. This can be through logging off the system or engaging in monthly group meetings and debriefing (Kempf, K et al. 2011, 116).
In circumstances where employees fail to meet the target, the organization should provide a platform on which clients can lodge complains and this can be one way that is used in measuring performance of the employees and time wastage. When customers lodge complaints, they provide the organization with issues that need to be resolved (Vavra, T. 2002, 78). The company can also use non-productive time in measuring the time spent on projects that are not directed towards the realization of organizational goals. These include time spent chatting with friends in the workplace, engaging in social media and reading news that is not crucial for the success of the business (Miller, A. 2007, 45). The calculation of non-productive in terms of percentage: is time spent in projects other than those of the organization divided by the total time allocated for a specific job (Miller, A. 2007, 46).
Training and development of employees in an organization plays an essential role in improving on the already acquired skills that are important in delivery of services as required by the organization in relation to customer needs (Miller, A. 2007, 77). Training and development helps employees in the management of time, especially that which is allocated for the completion of duties (Vavra, T. 2002, 79). This means that there will be a reduction of non-productive time as much focus will be on ways through which employees and the management can maximize on the available time to realize organisational goals. Training and development also ensures job gratification, personal and expert development (Miller, A. 2007, 78). Such a system ensures that work allocated is completed promptly and effectively using the facilities available. It is important to note that training also enhances interactions among employees on the best strategies that can be used in the realization of organizational goals and objectives (Vavra, T. 2002, 88).
2.0 Review and improvement of the process for selecting and recruiting appropriate people
2.1 An evaluation of the extent to which an organization’s process enables the Facilities Manager to recruit the right people with the right skills, experience and approach to the role in question
Recruitment is considered as an essential process in an organization considering that it enables an organization to identify and attract a group of potential candidates from within the said organization and outside the organization and take the said individuals through an evaluation process for employment (Durai, P. 2010, 123). Recruitment is therefore a process that facilitates the collection, measurement and evaluation of information about candidates that are likely to take up responsibility for a given employment position (Cheese, P et al 2008, 134). An organization can employ the tenets of this process as a way of increasing the probability that they will hire individuals with the rights skills and abilities in execution of a target employment opportunity (Durai, P. 2010, 125).
Recruitment in the organization often takes a relatively longer period because of the involvement of professional within the organization and other agency consultants. Any detailed employment creation specifications involves the input of the site mangers, senior managers, head of the estate and the management at the human resource (Cheese, P et al 2008, 138). The need for an additional staff originates from the site manager and it is followed by a discussion with the senior management and the human resource department. The discussions are often geared towards the description of the individual needed and his or her role in the improvement of the wellbeing of the organization (Sims, R. 2002, 46).
Depending of the position in question and the skills that the site management and the senior management are looking for, the organization often sources its staff from outside the organization (Secord, H & Secord, H. 2003, 46). The individual needed must possess hands on experience, be ready and willing to learn while at the same time be ready to be a contributor as a team player. In addition, the person in question must also the culture of the site and the organization to minimize the possibility of culture shocks (Sims, R. 2002, 116).
The job is then advertised on the organization’s website, Facilities management on an international platform, total jobs and the website of the agencies concerned (consultants). Upon application for the employment opportunity, the recruiting team short lists potential candidates and this is followed by a visit to the site and then by a series of interviews (Secord, H & Secord, H. 2003, 66). Despite the expensive nature of this form of advertisement, it is important to note that it is the most popular as it attracts many people who are potentially qualified in terms of the skills that they possess and the experience in the areas of interest (Caruth, D et al. 2009, 178). In addition, this form of advertisement also attracts individuals from diverse origins considering that individuals from different nationalities who qualify for the position can apply. This is one way through which the organization ensure that it breeds diversity as this has proved to be instrumental not only in the management but also in the overall success of the entire organization (Caruth, D et al. 2009, 180). Furthermore, the organization through this mode of recruitment also earns itself a position of the global platform considering that it is able to attract from different countries. In terms of gender balance, the organization plays a role of providing equal opportunities to both men and women who are qualified or the job. This is considered an essential attribute considering that it increases the possibility that the organization will thrive in terms of the composition of its staff in relation to gender balance.
2.2 Analysis and development of selection criteria to ensure that the right people are recruited within the organization
During the recruitment stage there is the selection process. It entails the collection and evaluation of all the information concerning an individual to enable the organization extends an offer of employment to the individual in question (Durai, P. 2010, 129). The section of the right employee for a position can ether fall in the category of first time employment for the employee for it can be a different position for an existing employee in the organization (Caruth, D et al. 2009, p. 182). The selection process is often executed in accordance with the legal demands or requirements of the organization and in consideration of the environmental constraints. These considerations are important during this process as they provide a technique through which the organization addresses its future interests and that of the individual in question (Durai, P. 2010, 133).
Once the most the most appropriate candidates have been identified after the interviewing process, the recruitment team can then begin the process of selecting the appropriate employee(s) for the available employment position (Cheese, P et al. 2008, 140). During the process, the recruitment team must agree on the best choice between different selection methods. It is important to note that the method chosen must be fair to the entire individual concerned (Caruth, D et al 2009, 188). The use of a poor selection method can result in a significant loss to the organization in terms of the financial cost that can be incurred in rehiring, indirect cost of poor performance of the selected employee, additional training to improve on the skills of the employee(s), less motivation and frequent absenteeism due to inefficiency (Cheese, P et al. 2008, 144). Furthermore, the organization also suffers losses resulting from legal costs if the selection method used was poor and in disagreement with the legal requirements of the organization. The management to the organization might be compelled to answer to an industrial tribunal for engaging in malpractice or unfair treatment of potential employee(s) (Caruth, D et al. 2009, 191).
The organization has the responsibility of ensuring that the person’s specifications meet both the employment and business requirements in terms
Certificate, diploma, degree, postgraduate
No of years served in a similar or relevant position in the past
Developments that the potential employees will bring to the organization if hired
Teamwork, technology, innovation
Basic mannerisms, sociability and professionalism
Essential role requirement
Basic knowledge in the field of interest, ability to interpreter, understand and explain key concepts in the area of interest.
Beneficial role requirement
Ability to engage potential client in organizational matters
Required approach to work
Sociable, professional, team player, morally upright, dedicated
Within the facilities department of the organization, the selection process of the most appropriate candidate involves a review of the application forms, interview and consultation with the referees. After that management in collaboration with the consulting agency have advertised the job and received and shortlisted the most preferred candidates, the candidates are invited for an initial interview (Caruth, D et al. 2009, 192). The interview comprises a panel of experts drawn from the consulting agency to select the best candidate among those who attempt the process. The process is the concluded when the a panel of experts drawn from, the organization including the site facility manner, senior manager and the human resource manager examine the selected candidate for a final recruitment process and this is followed by an offer for an employment opportunity for the right person . If the organization is not satisfied, the consulting agency is advised to redo the selection process to ensure that the selected individual satisfies the needs of the organization (Caruth, D et al. 2009, 194).
2.3 Analysis of the strengths and weaknesses in the recruitment process and make recommendations for change
The strengths or the weakness of the recruitment process is essential in the sense that it may have a direct bearing on the ability of the employers to realize to realize the goals and objectives of the organization. The analysis of the strengths and weaknesses must cover the reputation of the organization, pay, and benefits of the employees, working conditions, employment security, training and development (Cohen, S et al. 2008, 67). Despite the fact that different individuals can do numerous things as a way of ensuring that they earn and ensure that ends meet, these individuals often have preferences and consider numerous things in the process of applying for employment opportunities. It is the role of the employers to consider will attract or minimize the chances to ensure that the right candidate is chosen in a cost effective manner. The strengths of the recruitment process must include the pay structure, benefits for the employee, working conditions, job security, development opportunities, recruitment systems, style and skills (Elliott, J & Carvajal, A. 2007, 121).
Professionals within the organization and the consulting agency are considered useful when the best candidates are selected and offered an employment opportunity. The organization uses a larger panel of experts considering that there are numerous parties are interested in the selection process (Elliott, J & Carvajal, A. 2007, 122). The major advantage of such a selection board is that it enables different people to look at the applications and compare notes concerning the applicants. The major disadvantage of using such a panel in the recruitment process is that the questions from most of the panellists are often unplanned and delivered in a random manner (Atkin, B & Brooks, A. 2009, 145). In addition, it can lead to prejudices of a domination board member whose views concerning any candidate can overwhelm or interfere with the judgement of the other members in the panel. This system can also be viewed as unjust to the candidates considering that they have to satisfy the interests of many panellists and this can be exhausting (Atkin, B & Brooks, A. 2009, 146).
It is important for the recruiting team to realize that there is need for a clear definition of the terms and conditions of the jobs available. This is largely in terms of the salaries and the benefits of applying or landing the employment opportunity (Hassanien, A & Dale, C 2013, 124). This is important for it can be used in attracting potential candidates. It is also important for the management to consider aspects that might discourage applicants such as the location of the job among other discouraging factors that must be anticipated (Barrett, P & Baldry, D. 2003, 23).
To be able to ensure efficiency and effectiveness in the recruitment process, it is important for the organization to conduct analysis after every recruitment and selection process. This will help in understanding different aspects related to the successes and the failures as a way of establishing that which works and those which do not ((Barrett, P & Baldry, D. 2003, 26). In addition, the organization must ensure that the induction process is effectively planned to ensure that it is appropriate in terms of the information given to new recruits concerning the organization. Such information should be focused on the areas of success of the organizations attend the role of the new recruits in ensuring that the organization remains successful in relation to its mission and vison (Caruth, D et al. 2009, 150).
3.0 Using and reviewing appropriate processes to manage staff retention
3.1 Analysis of the appropriate theories, principles and practices for motivating and retaining staff
Motivation is considered as an essential aspect that affects human behaviour and performance. This makes it core in the management considering that it gets people to do all that are required of them by the organization because the said individuals have some interests in accomplishing the said activity not only for the benefit of the organization but also for the individual benefit (Lunenburg, F & Ornstein, A. 2012, 32). It is important to note that the term motivation is therefore a broad concept that can be used in the explanation of internal psychological powers in individuals which arouses in them the desire to act or not to act or on things in a particular way (Lunenburg, F & Ornstein, A. 2012, 34).
Currently it is common knowledge that any form of increase in global competitiveness within an organization is no longer reliant on the products, services or technology that they use but the level by which employees are willing to render their services to the organization (Bruce, A & Pepitone, J. 1999, 46). It is only through the role and the willingness of the employees that important attributes such as creativity, diversity and energy can ensure that the company is successful in the realization of its objectives and goals. To ensure effective realization of all these attributes, it is important for an organization to ensure that its employees are empowered, appreciated and acknowledged for their efficiency in the organization (Bruce, A & Pepitone, J 1999, 49).
There are three component of motivation namely: direction, power and perseverance. . Any theory of motivation revolves around an understanding of a process that provides a description of why and how the behaviour of human beings is activated, and directed (Stickler, V 2011, 16). Despite the availability of different theories of motivation, research argues that there is largely influenced by the country, time and circumstance. However all the theories of motivation focus on basic human needs (Rauner, F & Smith, E. 2010, 154).
Fredrick Taylor’s theory of scientific management
According to Fredrick Taylor, most employees in an organization are motivated by the salaries and wages that they receive for the work that they do. He noted that most workers do not engage in employment opportunities because they enjoy the work that they do but they only perform duties according to their job description with the objective of receiving direct reward of monetary payment (Taylor, F. 2010, 56). To be able to ensure that there is efficiency and effectiveness in production and service provision, the management of the organization musty ensure that workers are remunerated appropriately (Taylor, F. 2010, 56).
Taylor’s theory gives four principles that are effective in the management and motivation of workers they include:
- Replacement of working on the grounds of commons sense and replacing it with scientific methods to determine the most effective ways of performing specific duties
- Rather than assigning workers to perform any duties, the management must always align workers with duties base on their abilities and motivation while training them to work with maximum efficiency (Agarwal, R. 1986, 34).
- The management must always monitor performance of its employees and give the appropriate instructions to ensure that the most efficient ways are used in accomplishing duties (Lussier, R. 2012, 78).
- Allocate work between the management and the rest of employees to ensure that the management is involved in planning and training since this allows workers to perform their roles effectively (Taylor, F. 2010, 59).
Mayo’s theory of human relations
Elton Mayo’s theory examines the workers in relation the gratification of their social needs. Mayo held the belief that the salaries and wages that were awarded to the workers was not a sufficient motivating factor for the said workers to put in their best effort (Gitman, L & McDaniel, C. 2008, 90). Employees need to be treated in a caring and humane manner to ensure that they are able to demonstrate that the organization is concerned with their interests and this will be important in producing the best out of the workers (Miner, J. 2005, 69).
To be able to realize that such a success the management of an organization must also ensure that workers are motivated by relational aspects such as attention and social wellbeing instead of focussing on monetary aspects (Miner, J. 2005, 70). It is important that other needs that revolve around the provision of adequate health care in terms of facilities and personnel, the management must also put its focus on the provision of proper infrastructure in terms of communication, housing and education networks (Nanda, J. 2006, 13). Education networks for instance are instrumental in skill development considering that it is a way of improving on their capacity to handle and maintain different aspects that are related to welfare (Gitman, L & McDaniel, C. 2008, 92).
Maslow and Herzberg’s theory of human needs
Abraham Maslow and Fredrick Herzberg presented a human relations school of thought that focuses in the psychosomatic necessities of employees. Maslow argues that the most effective way to determine the most pressing human need is by using a hierarchy of needs which stipulates an order of satisfying the needs (Koontz, H & Weihrich, H. 2010, 67). The most basic needs must be attained before any other need. The order of the pyramid from Maslow is listed as physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization. Employers would see better outputs from their employees by recognizing the needs of individual employees (Aswathappa, K. 2005, 111).
Principles of motivation and practices
Motivation can be grouped in two. These are the pull group which focuses on the bonuses and shared vision. The second group is the push group which revolves around the threats and fear (Farazmand, A. 2002, 45). Every member of the organization is motivated by different things most of which are not related to money. Instead, they are incentives that offer personal recognition to the employees in terms of their achievements (Elliot, A & Dweck, C. 2007, 70). It is therefore the obligation of the administration to determine factors that motivate individuals in the organization.
Motivation strategies that can be put in practice include pay management, induction performance management process, a friendly job design, training and development (Bhaskara, R. 2004, 88). The most essential practices that can be used in the process of motivating staff include giving incentives to employees, regular feedback on the performance of employees, training and development, and sharing company goals and objectives with the employees and ensuring that they understand the practices and that which is expected of them (Lunenburg, F & Ornstein, A. 2012, 23).
3.2 Applying appropriate theories, principles and practice to motivating and retaining staff and review their effectiveness
The management has the responsibility of realizing that every worker is unique in their own way and this explains why a factor that motivates one worker will not be the same motivating factor for another employee. It is important for the management to find out that which works well with an individual an indivisible within a team. In addition, the motivation factor that an organization selects for individual workers must be equitable and transparent.
The following are examples that can be used as motivating factors that can help in keeping staff in employment. Pay, is a factor, which should be organized, impartial, transparent and comprehensible. This will ensure that employees get their salaries and wages according to their job description and the allowances that the organization provides in cases of achievements or overtime. The initiation process is also a factor that the organization must consider as a possible motivating factor. Induction should be put in place during the recruitment process in bid of preventing lower retention or early exit. Training and development considered as a motivating factor considering that it helps the employees in gaining skills. The organization can also initiate flexible working hours for its workers as motivation factors and increase the possibility of retaining more employees. Despite the fact that employers see acquisition of more skills as providing employees with reasons to leave the organization in search for more challenging roles elsewhere. In some instances, training has been a motivating factor to employees considering that it provides strong support for employees to keep committing to the organization. Job design is considered as an essential motivating factor especially when it is made practical for individual satisfaction and company interest. Performance management in organization focuses on regular appraisals that a company puts in place as a way of monitoring performance management between the manager concerned and the employee. The management of the organization uses empowerment and job enrichment as effective strategies of motivation its workers.
3.3 Evaluating the application of the dynamics of reward and recognition within facilities management function
Both internal and external motivation factors are considered essential in the motivation of employees. On numerous occasions, employees often confuse reward and recognition. Reward is often monetary or involves physical benefits when good behaviour has been demonstrated. Recognition is often some form of psychological benefit that follows a specific behaviour. Programs that a reward employees when they uphold organizational values, goals and objectives within the facilities department of an organization often focus on recognition. Good performance award, for instance, exists in the organization. It is however important to note that both reward and recognition come with advantages and disadvantages which include:
- Pension- this often attracts a group of employees at a later stage of their career hence it is considered aa positive reward for others while there is a group of employees that lay less emphasis on this reward
- Education and training is a form of reward that is appealing to many employees especially those in the early stages of their employments. These are often individual who are ambitious and would like to scale higher heights in their workplace.
- Genuine appreciation- it is important to note that human often feel a sense of belonging whenever they are recognized for work well done.
3.4. Evaluate the extent to which they are successful
Numerous organizations have developed a reward system for their employees due tote recognition of the fact that effective recognition and reward systems are essential for the achievement of a competitive edge. According to studies by the Forum for People Performance management and Measurement, there is an association between engaged workers and satisfied customers. In addition, there is also recognition of an association between satisfied customers and the profitability of an organization (Amos 2008, 34). The ability of the organization to recognize the efforts of anyone who desires to engage in self-development activities are provided support by the organization, through support the organization helps members of staff in managing extra responsibilities for instance the coordination of projects and the management of contractors which are considered aside from normal duties (Brody & Neil 1998, p. 122). This means that the success of any reward initiative by an organization encompasses the ability of an employer to encourage the processes that will motivate both parties in the organization.in addition frustration in any organization begins upon the recognition by employees that the organization does not appreciate their effort (Dowling eta al 2008, p. 24). This leads such employees to seek employment opportunities in other organizations. However, organizations can ensure effective management of the reward system by introducing additional incentives such as holidays for its staff and vouchers to appreciate efforts by different teams within the organization (Amos 2008, 39).
3.5. Analyze ways to develop staff
Development in an organizational setting can be perceived as the provision of learning opportunities within organizations with the objective of ensuring employee growth through training of essential skills. Coaching is an example of development technique that an organization can use to improve the quality of its staff. Coaching enables daily interactions between a supervisor and an employee on how to execute a given responsibility in the workplace (Amos 2008, 42). Through coaching, an employee is able to get positive feedback on their contribution to the development of theorganization.in addition, coaching also ensures focus on performance issues to employees especially when they are minor in the organization (Dowling eta al 2008, p. 28).
Mentoring is also a technique that provides a platform for interaction between experienced, knowledgeable employees and in experienced relatively new employees in the organization (Dowling et al 2008, p. 28). Through structured mentoring, new employees are able to absorb the organizations cultural aspects as this sis critical in personal development of employees, however, a possible challenge to this approach is that there is a high dependency rate on other employees for support and this can result in some form of alienation for the other sources of expertize (Amos 2008, 45).
Internal and external training are also considered essential in staff development. The use of external trainers can be important in building the organization capacity from an external source. Internal training initiates can also be considered important especially in training specific topic a that are considered cost effective compared to external trainings (Amos 2008, 47).
The development and the use of self-development groups are important in staff development considering that these groups institute likeminded individuals acting to fulfilling personal interests. Such groups can appoint facilitators to provide them with the necessary guidance until they are ready to execute responsibilities with little or no assistance (Dowling eta al 2008, p. 32).
3.6. Analyze ways to promote learning culture within an organization.
Introducing and developing a learning culture in an organization encourages employees to participate in learning activities and understand its importance in the development of individual employees. It also ensures that employees develop skills that are considered necessary in the development of the organization and the capacity of its staff (Larson et al 1998, p. 20). A learning culture can be considered as a great motivator to members of staff in situations when there is commitment by the senior management and the directors of the organization to ensure that their employees are subjected to numerous learning platforms (Amos 2008, p. 55). In addition, an effective learning culture can only be ensured if all instances of leaning are in line with the goals and strategies of the organization (Larson et al 1998, p. 21). It is important for a learning culture to understand and embrace regular employee feedback as this will be an essential determinant of progress (Amos 2008, p. 55). Effective learning can only be realized in situations where the organization through its employees and staff create a comfortable environment where self-learning is appreciated and there is adequate sharing of knowledge. In addition, the efficiency and effectiveness of a learning culture in any organization can also be realized in situations where learning is rewarded through promotions and acknowledge through letters (Dowling et al 2008, p. 30). It is also important for organizations to realize the relevance of encouraging feedbacks from the opportunities provided. In addition, uh learning can also be ensured when an organization introduces effective mentoring and coaching initiatives to enable those who have experienced learning to cascade the skills acquired to other members of staff. This can be realized when the organization encouraged internal training activities (Larson et al 1998, p. 24).
4.1 Analyze the reasons why staff leave and review implications
Poor management has been identified as the major reason why staff leaves. This is facilitated by uncaring and unprofessional managers who overwork their employees, poor placement in jobs and poor selection and recruitment process (Dowling et al 2008, p. 36). Employees have also cited lack of platforms for career growth. This has been facilitated by little or no advancement opportunities, unfair ways of promoting employees and limited or no posing or job openings from within the organization (Amos 2008, 69). Pay issues have also been cited as reasons why employees leave. This is especially in situation where employees do not realize any balance in the amount of work they execute and the levels of remuneration. In addition, pay issues have also been associated with pay inequities, slow rise in salaries and favouritism in the allocation of bonuses (Amos 2008, 70). Insufficient or no learning opportunities within an organization is also considered as a contributing factor. This is especially when employees are not able to access learning opportunities to ensure personal growth in terms of their ability to deliver (Dowling et al 2008, p.67). The absence of effective techniques of identifying and measuring key performance indicators may be contributors to the reasons why staff leave. In addition, this can be exacerbated when other factors such as nepotism and other forms of preferential treatments are used in the measurement of performance (Krausert 2009, p. 10).
It is common knowledge that every employee seeks opportunities of advancing their skills, salaries and wages. It is therefore the responsibility of the organization to develop initiatives that will help in understanding the reasons for staff leaving for other employers (Amos 2008, 72). This can be conducted through exit interview as this will provide sufficient information on the areas of improvement for the organization. In addition, this can be executed through a formal or informal standardized questionnaire (Atkin & Adrian 2009, P. 28). This will include questions concerning their leaving and the role of the organization in minimizing such occurrences. It is important to note that the departure of an employee may at times be to the benefit of the organization (Dowling et al 2008, p.88). However, employers have a responsibility of developing structures to address the turnover problems among employees. This is by ensuring among other things, effective job designs, provision of just wages, and the development of a learning culture and elimination of unpleasant working conditions (Amos 2008, 70).
4.2 Investigate the application of succession planning including its benefits
Succession planning encompasses the development of an effective strategy for the future of the business. This involved activities such as fining someone within the organization to play an important managerial role (Singer & Gail 2010, p. 23). Succession planning is considered an important imitative since it is one way of ensuring staff motivation considering that it provides an assurance of career progression. In addition succession planning can also be used in workload planning and ensuring the continuity of the organization (Atwood 2007, p. 34). It is important to note that through succession planning, the organization is able to recruit individuals into senior management, engage them in coaching and mentoring initiatives to facilitate the development of their skills and knowledge. This is considered as a technique of preparing such individuals for challenging managerial roles (Holland 2012, p. 35). Succession planning is a long term initiative that the company embraces before taking the action of actively engaging the successors. Through such a plan the organization is able to identify individuals that will play essential roles in the management of the organization in the future. The highly potential candidates must be engaged in a thorough process of careful selection and training to ensure that they possess the kills and competencies for the business environment in the future (Singer & Gail 2010, p. 24).
It is important to consider certain essential areas prior to the selection of a successor. One of the most critical areas is the development of a formal succession plan that is to be used together with essential data in regard to the potential candidates (Atkin & Adrian 2009, P. 25). The plan and data should include those individuals with essential leadership skills, the quality of the individuals in terms of desirable traits (Holland 2012, p. 36). The benefits associated with the succession must also be included in the plan and they include staff motivation, workload planning and continuity (Singer & Gail 2010, p. 24)
4.3 Investigate the skill transference within the working environment including its benefits
Skill transference encompasses the ability of employees to use the skills they have acquired in a different employment position. Such an employee can use competencies acquired in a specific job in executing role and responsibilities in another employment position (Holland 2012, p. 39). Such an employee is considered as a valuable asset especially in situations where the organization is experiencing tough economic terms in terms of the availability of financial resources (Singer & Gail 2010, p. 44).
Kill transference include interpersonal skills in team work activities, planning in relation o time management, effective communication skills especially in giving and receiving instructions, commitment , motivation and decision making ((Holland 2012, p. 39). Organizations often prefer employees with the ability to engage in transference of kills. Such employees are not only multi-skilled, but they also possess the ability to multi-task (Singer & Gail 2010, p. 50).
Some of the benefits of skills transference are inclusive of staff training and development where an individual is able to gain new knowledge and skills by executing new job opportunities that require novel skills (Holland 2012, p. 40). Skills transference also helps in improving employee relations considering that such an employee is able to learn different groups of workers within the organization. It also helps the organization in succession planning considering that such an organization will have a pool of probable leaders in the future (Singer & Gail 2010, p. 25).
4.4 Evaluate the effectiveness of disciplinary and grievance procedure within an organization.
It is common knowledge that in every organization, different members experience problems and it is necessary for the organization to institute policies and procedure to help in addressing any problems. Discipline and grievances are considered as two sides of a coin. This is because discipline involves the role of the management in addressing any form of misconduct within the organization (Holland 2012, p. 55). Grievance encompasses the ability of employee to voice their concerns in matters to their employers. In both cases it is necessary for the organization to develop strategies essential in the management of any matter arising (Holland 2012, p. 56).
The development of disciplinary and grievance procedures and policies provide clear and transparent structures to handle difficulties which may arise as part of challenges in the working relationship between the employer and the employees (Atkin & Adrian 2009, P. 20). Such procedures that help in resolving work related issues include identifying the issues, investigate the issues, agreeing on possible outcomes and the action to be taken (Amos 2008, p. 99). The procedures also include recording, monitoring the success of the action, engaging in formal meetings, introducing sanction and to some extent terminating employment (Maher et al 2008, p. 100).
The human resource department plays a vital role in the development and the execution of the necessary procedures. The procedures and policies can be considered essential from the perspective of good practice and legal requirements of an organization. They often implemented to benefit both sides of the issue in any problematic situation (Maher et al 2008, p. 101).
Discipline procedure may include the authorization of penalties, investigation to acquire evidence prior to decision making, information and explanation especially on the decision made to penalize or to pardon the employee (Amos 2008, p. 112).
The grievance procedure should be fair, well developed in terms of the necessary facilities and the development of essential procedural steps towards necessary in delivering prompt and effective solutions (Maher et al 2008, p. 108). It is important to note that for any disciplinary or grievance structures to be effective, they must help in understanding the existing issues, encourage an open system of communication, offer platforms for seeking solution and improve on staff retention (Amos 2008, p. 1115).
5.1 Apply the principles of staff monitoring and performance appraisal in a facilities management context
Effective management of performance involves monitoring the processes and development toward organizational objectives. Changes are only made to the initial plan if such adjustment will facilitate the realization of the intended objective (Waddock et al 2007, p. 14). Positive appraisal for instance is considered as an effective motivator which helps employees in setting their career objectives through training as in the case of the multisite organization (Noe 2013, p.29). Performance appraisals can also play the role of monitoring progress of employees in terms of the execution of their responsibilities in relation to various objectives that were initially set. When appraisals are conducted in line with employee monitoring, the organization is able to ensure that the achievements of its goals are on track through a holistic and simple performance management system (Waddock et al 2007, p. 18). Appraisals are also ways through which an organization can ensure that there is meaningful development in its goals and objectives. Two-way communication enhances an understanding between the communicator and the listener especially when handling matter related to finding solution to challenges facing the organization.
Figure 1.0. An appraisal tool that can have its basis on leadership competencies
Competency framework of appraisal is dependent on the size of the organization. Thorough such a framework, an organization can be able to evaluate employee performance, obtain feedback and develop measures to improve on the abilities of its employees in relation to the objectives of the organization. Competency framework also enables employees to develop efficient an effective goals (Noe 2013, p.33).
5.2 Analyze their impact on productivity and recruitment cost
The benefits of conducting performance appraisal through competency framework include the ability of the employee to access trainings; it opens and enhances communication channels and networks in the organization (Waddock et al 2007, p. 33). In addition, it provides a platform for addressing potential callings while at the same time improving employee understanding on the goals and objectives of the organization hence improving their morale (Noe 2013, p.34).
Though appraisals, the organization is able to identify training needs especially on those areas that are considered critical in realization of organizational goals. Despite the costs involved in training and addressing organizational and employee needs, the motivational role of the trainings helps to improve on the proactive nature of the organization’s employees and this is essential in the improvement of the organization’s productivity (Noe 2013, p.36). This gives the organization a competitive advantage from improved customer service and relations to improve profit levels within the organization (Atkin & Adrian 2009, P. 22). In addition, it also helps the organization in retaining its staff. It is important to note that in situations where organizations do not conduct appraisals on their staff, they may fail to realize the intended objectives us to lack of indicator against which to monitor and measure progress (Waddock et al 2007, p. 44). It is important to note that the ability of an organization to retain its staff through trainings on skills development also helps in the reduction of recruitment cost considering that training establishes structure of skill development for an organizations’ success (Noe 2013, p.30).
5.3 Analyze method used in improving individual and team performance.
Some of the methods used in improving individual and team performance in an organization include:
Skill transfer is considered the ability of an organization to provide platforms where individuals can practice on skills acquired. This can be done through delegating responsibilities considering that this ensures that the employees are able to execute different duties and this is considered as a way of improving on their performance (Waddock et al 2007, p. 54). Skills transfer also enables employees to exercise their ability to use relevant competencies in different areas in the execution of their responsibilities. This not only enables individuals to multi-task but also improves the capability of teams especially through the when numerous individual use varied levels of experience and expertise in providing solutions to problems (Waddock et al 2007, p. 55).
Mentoring is also a technique through which an organization can ensure that its employees progress in their in their careers by giving them mentorship choices especially on areas that they would want to be mentor and be mentored. This will help in improving their efficiency within the organization (Noe 2013, p.37)
Collaboration is a technique that ensures teamwork in the execution of their roles and responsibilities in an organization. Members that are to collaborate use that platform to learn and acquire skills from other members of the organization (Noe 2013, p.38).
Coaching is a technique that encourages one to one communication between different individuals in an organization. Coaching can be effective when internal experts within an organization are used in the delivery of essential knowledge and skills to junior employees (Waddock et al 2007, p. 54).
5.4 Explain how training and development is used to support improvements in performance
For training and development to be translated into effective performance within an organization, it is important for the organization to develop a proper two way communication system through which the employees and the management can engage in meaningful communication to help in strategizing for the realization of organizational goals (Waddock et al 2007, p. 55). The organization can also engage its employees in regular informal meetings as this is essential in tracking Progress of the employees in executing responsibilities in accordance with skills acquired during training. The organization can also introduce regular appraisals in relation to agreed goals. This will help in monitoring and evaluating the performance of employees. Providing support and recognizing learning initiatives among employees will act as a motivational factor to all the other employees. This is most effective when organizations develop a reward system for learning and development (Atkin & Adrian 2009, P. 23).
6.1 Analyze different communication methods for different situations
Understanding the types and the function of communication is considered as a vital necessity to the success of an organization. This is because the recognition of the most appropriate method can be beneficial in ensuring that information is accessed and understood as expected. Verbal, non-verbal, written and unwritten form of communication can be used depending on the contest whether formal or informal.
Figure 2.0: Types of communication
Figure 3.0 Formal and Informal communication
Communication can be through spoken words and these include face to face communication between different individual and groups, communication through presentations, speeches, cell phone conversations and video conferencing (Samovar et al 2012, p. 120). This system of communication is considered effective since the audience and the communicator are able to engage in a liv interaction the communicator can assess the attitude and the feelings of the audience in relation to the information provided (Cost 2102 International Conference et al 2011, p. 67).
There are also written form of communication which includes communication through letters, reports, newsletters, emails and books. The efficiency and effectiveness of written form of communication is on the evidence that there was communication. On numerous situations written forms of communication are often accompanied by signatures as an indication of authority (Samovar et al 2012, p. 122).
There is also non-verbal communication which is often characterized by the tone of voice, facial expression and gestures.
These forms of communication have their benefit and shortcomings depending on the context of use. Irrespective of the method used the communicator must ensure that the resulting information is clear and meaningful to the audience (Cost 2102 International Conference et al 2011, p. 69). For the Facilities Manager, it is important to understand employees and the communication method that works for them. This is meant to ensure that the information given is of high quality, accurate and acceptable (Sethi & Bhavana 2010, p. 110).
6.2 Review the effectiveness of the communication methods with a range of different situation
A facilities manager has the responsibility of considering the right approach in addressing different situations. Irrespective of the type of communication that the management employs, the content of the message must be effective to deliver the intended communication (Sethi & Bhavana 2010, p. 111). The effectiveness of the message that is to be delivered is dependent on how the communicator appropriates the message in terms of content and planning. In conducting interviews for example the organization can consider the use of face to face communication (DiLuzio et al 2001, p. 170). This is also applicable in disciplinary meetings, team debriefing and personal performance meetings. Written form of communication can be used as reminders or to give information. The effectiveness of any form of communication can also be gauged on the feedback behaviour of the respondent in all situations this is inclusive of interviews, redundancy meetings, appraisals and minutes of a meeting among other scenarios.
In facilities management, the management has the responsibility of communicating information to employees that report directly to them. For employees who are regular with the computers, the supervisors can communicate to them through emails at this will be the most effective way of ensuring that all information is received (Sethi & Bhavana 2010, p. 112). It is important to note that non-verbal communication can present numerous challenges to the communicator especially if in the event of misinterpretation of the facial expressions or the tone of voice used while communication (DiLuzio et al 2001, p. 178). It is the responsibility of the human resource department in any organization to ensure that they type of communication that is used is the most effective and efficient for all the employees within the organization.
7.1 Analyze the causes of work related stress
Stress can be perceived as a personal experience that arises from pressure of an individual and the impacts of this pressure on the ability of the individual to cope with the perceptions of pressures (Oxington 2005, p. 14). Stress can also be defined as a state of mental and emotional tension which may be a result of adverse and in some situations demanding circumstances (Oxington 2005, p. 14). Too much or too little stress may be dangerous for individuals considering the possibility of permanent damage on the mental and emotional status of the said individual. Work related stress arises from disagreement between the demands of the job, the resource available and the ability of the worker to meet the demands of the job (Cooper 2013, p. 45). Such stresses can be a consequent of work overload which is a consequent of the demands of the job coupled with pressures and deadlines. Work relationships especially those of poor work relationships with colleagues and the management can be considered as a potential source of stress especially if there are instances of isolation an unfair treatment (Collins 2009, p. 245). Work life balance is also considered as another source of stress considering that working additional hours may affect the personal life of an individual. In addition, such stresses aerie when an individual’s work interferes with family relationships due to an increase in demands and inflexible work schedules (Cooper 2013, p. 48).
All employees in an organization are vulnerable to stress and this explains why it is the responsibility of the supervisors and the management to create proper work life balance, create suitable working environment and develop an open two way communication system (Collins 2009, p. 246). This will help in gaining the trust of employees to minimize unnecessary stress. It is important to note that stress can be beneficial when it make individuals to work under pressure (Walsh 2009, p. 40).
7.2 Propose ways of creating an organizational culture that will minimize stress levels
A stressful working environment can have a negative impact on the lives of employees and on the productivity of the organization. Legally it is the responsibility of the organization and the management to protect its employees from negative impacts of stress (Cooper 2013, p. 46). It is also notable that it is in the interest of the organization to prevent stressful situations considering he long terms economic effects of stressful scenarios (Collins 2009, p. 250). The stress policy on employee well-being stresses on the need for the development of standards that the employer must institute to ensure the promotion of health and safety of employees within their premises of work.
One way of managing stress in an organization is through assessing the areas that create stress in any working environment. These include work demands and the balance in work-life situations (Walsh 2009, p. 41). Resource that help in meeting these pressures and demands that are identified as causes of stress include individual attributes such as coping skills, development of stress policies and work-life balance laws (Cooper 2013, p. 46).
7.3 Explain how to manage own and staff stress issues
Approaches that can be used in managing stress related issues include training, developing effective work schedules, providing social support, ensuring control over work, healthy or counselling initiatives and the provision of psychosocial support (Walsh 2009, p. 41). In addition, it is also possible to manage stress by ensuring that there is an open culture of informal communication coupled by meetings between employees and the line managers. This will be a way of removing organizational stress factors such as workload and poor communication. Stress can also be managed through the provision of appropriate tools that enhance communication and these include training, providing gym time and work- life balance. Being the department concerned with the well-being of employees, human resource department can also provide high levels support to employees undergoing stress. Every approach that is employee should have the objective of using the available resources and skills in managing change in their situation (Collins 2009, p. 250). It is important to develop people’s skills including personal confidence in changing their situations. It is important to encourage employees to voice their concerns and issues that need to be resolved (Walsh 2009, p. 42).
8.1 Analyze and evaluate the implications and impact of legislation relating to employment upon an organization
The main objective of employment laws and regulations is to outlaw all forms of discrimination in employment. In addition, these laws have a responsibility of providing equal employment opportunities to every citizen (Ballantyne et al 2011, p. 120). According to laws and regulation, unfair discrimination is considered as the making of employment decisions of the basis of sex, religion, ethnicity, age and disability among other factors (Sims 2007, p. 110).
Legislations relating to employment upon an organization will introduce the need for the organization to act in accordance with the requirements of the law. This will introduce sanctions in situations where employers are perceived to be non-compliant of existing laws on the management of their employees. In addition, such laws also minimize the possibility of discrimination considering that the role of such legislations include the promotion of an equal society
Employees who fail to comply with the demands of the laws and regulations end up ruining the organization’s reputation in terms of the negative personal relationship with clients and employees (Ballantyne et al 2011, p. 120). In addition, such reputations may attract legal action such as fines which affect the ability of the organization to operate in business (Sims 2007, p. 111).
The ability of a real estate business to succeed in the realization of its goals and objectives is highly dependent on the systems and structure that the organization introduces in the management of its employees. A facilities manager has the responsibility of considering the right approach in addressing different situations. Every decision that involves the employees of an organization must be conduct with the interests of the organization and those of the employees. In addition, an organization must execute all decisions in accordance to existing laws and regulations. These laws play an essential role in the development and execution of an organizations policies and laws. In addition, understanding of the organizational goals and objectives coupled by the interests the employees must be definitive of the policies of an organization.
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