A manager is an individual in an organization bestowed with the responsibility of leading workers, functions, or departments. Employees possessing this title are usually allocated to a particular level within an organizational chart. They assume varying responsibilities for the employees as well as the organizational functions. While smaller organizations may only have one level of managers, larger organizations may have several levels of managerial figures that may include senior managers as well as managers of managers. According to Northouse (2004, 77), senior managers as well as the managers of managers may either report to the organizational directors or the vice presidents depending on the size and scope of the organization. Kavanaugh 2001, 22) describes a manager as a person that is bestowed with the responsibility of overseeing the performance as well as leading the activities of individuals serving in an organization. A manager is also bestowed the responsibility of leading a particular portion of work or a segment of an organization’s output without necessarily having reporting staff under him. This paper establishes how a good and productive manager can be developed by looking into management styles, leadership characteristics, communication process, leadership and motivation approaches, and decision making processes employed by managers in the hospitality industry.
Different managers in the hospitality industry employ varying management styles, which solely depend on the unique level of performance sought, the type and location of the organization as well as the extent to which each manager intends to develop his/her organization. The Emirate Palace Hotel, which is five star hospitality organization situated in UAE’s Abu Dhabi is a suitable example of a hospitality organization where unique styles of management are employed. The three styles of management used by managers in this organization include autocratic, consultative, and persuasive. According to Ghazzawi (2011, 92), autocratic management style describes a style that allows organizational managers to make decisions without consulting or allowing participation by other employees. Leaders solely make decisions and convey them to the subordinate members that have to strictly follow them in the scope of their work (Audu 2015, 21). Such decisions always reflect the attributes and opinions of the organizational managers, which in return reflect aspects of well-managed hospitality companies. A core advantage of managers using this style of management is that they do not seek for the opinions of the subordinate members and hence they make quick and efficient decisions. However lack of input from others enhances severity of possible consequences in case the manager makes faulty decisions (Northouse 2004, 87). .
The autocratic management style is closely related to the consultative management style, which is a style of management that takes an essentially dictatorial approach. Just like the autocratic management style, hospitality managers using the consultative style make decisions unilaterally and then pass to the subordinate members to be implemented. Unlike the autocratic managers, consultative managers give preference to communication with the subordinate members, and hence, they put their needs alongside those of the business. a core advantage of using this style of management in this hospitality organization is that that it allows managers to make decisions that do not only promote organizational interests but employee interests as well. Just as is the case with the autocratic management style, communication in the consultative style is downwards (Kavanaugh 2001, 47). However, consultative style encourages feedback from the subordinate members, which is not the case in the autocratic style. Other managers in Emirate Palace Hotel use the persuasive management style, which is a style that allows managers to have direct control over all aspects of the business. This compares to both the autocratic and persuasive styles in that the managers assume the ultimate authority in determining how activities within the organization should be carried out. This style of management is however different from the autocratic and the consultative styles in that managers do not give orders directly but they instead clarify why certain tasks need to be carried out in a particular way. The persuasive style, just like the consultative style encourages direct communication between the managers and their subordinates. A core advantage of using this style of management is that employees are somehow engaged in the decision-making process, which provides support to the managers particularly when there are complex tasks that need to be carried out. However, this style tends to slow down activities as the manager has to take a lot of time explaining every task to the subordinate members (Ghazzawi 2011, 97).
1.2 Leadership characteristics that a hospitality manager should possess to conduct his role successfully
Leadership, which describes the aspect of influencing subordinate members towards realizing certain desired objectives, is a key element in the hospitality industry and particularly in Emirate Palace Hotel. This is because the organization has evolved radically in the recent past, which has seen consumers becoming adamant about their preferences and critical about the level and quality of services desired. As such, a manager in this organization is often required to develop certain unique characteristics in order to undertake his/her roles successfully. Effective communication is a core characteristic that a good manager in this organization should have so as to successfully undertake his/her roles. Having this attribute means that a hospitality manager is able to speak confidently and effectively to express his/her views to other people (Woods 2002, 211). Effective communication should be that which encourages the subordinate members to work towards realizing certain goals that would in return improve customer experience on one hand and organizational performance on the other. Knowledge is another important attribute that a manager in this organization should possess if at all he is going to conduct his role successfully. A good manager should be knowledgeable about the various issues linked to the industry (Kavanaugh 2001, 52). A good manager working in Emirate Palace Hotel should for example be knowledgeable about the various products and services that are bound to increase consumer experience as well as enhance the organization’s competitive edge within the industry. The manager should also have enough knowledge about how he can lead a team of employees towards realizing a common goal that would promote consumer experience on one hand and organizational success on the other. As argued by Northouse (2004, 87), a potentially successful manager in this organization should also possess positive attitude as well as good social etiquette. This is because hospitality industry is all about having good mannerism that is likely to improve customer experience. A good manager should be the one that guides subordinate employees towards handling customers with the highest level of respect (Lucas 2013, 45).
Communication is a term that sums up the various aspects linked to sending as well as receiving messages. The way people communicate can promote either success or failure in the hospitality industry hence the reason why organizational managers adopt communication approaches that are likely to promote the most outstanding customer experience. Communication process in Emirate Palace Hotel involves exchange of facts as well as ideas between individuals holding varying positions as well as between staffs and clients to promote mutual harmony. This communication process is dynamic and not static in that it involves sending a message and receiving feedback. This can be summarized in the flowing diagram.
Communication in this organization is usually verbal, non-verbal as well as written. Verbal communication is a form of communication where messages are sent through the word of mouth. This includes verbal instructions that organizational managers give to the subordinate members or the type of announcement that they make in meetings (Woods 2002, 217). Verbal communication is prevalent in every level of the organization including the corporate president, managers, food directors, the chief chefs, station cooks, and cook assistants. A core advantage of using verbal communication in this organization is that it allows constant feedbacks that are given through the word of mouth. Verbal communication also time saving and it allows actions to be taken immediately. Execute directors in this organization for example use the word of mouth to give instructions that need to be implemented immediately thereby saving time that would be spent doing other important things. This type of communication is however disadvantageous as it does not give any prove of message sent. Managers can for example give faulty instructions but later blame their subordinate members for the consequences but the subordinate members would not have a way to prove that they had received these instructions from the manager (Ghazzawi 2011, 102). The diagram below depicts how verbal communication in a hospitality organization looks like:
Non-verbal communication is also common in the Emirate Palace Hotel and it involves sending as well as receiving visual cues with an intended message. Non-verbal communication is mainly common between service providers and customers where costumers study as well as attach meaning to the facial expressions, proxemics and paralanguages given by the service provider. A core advantage of using this form of communication is it complements verbal communication thereby improving the intended meaning. Non-verbal communication also enhances quick expression of intended message, which is not the case with verbal or written communication. A major disadvantage of non-verbal communication is that it allows vague interpretation of meaning, which may be based on the past service experience that the customer may have received. Customers may for example associate positive non-verbal cues with excellent service experiences while associating negative non-verbal cues with poor service experiences (Woods 2002, 221). This can be summarized in the diagram below.
|Service provider non-verbal cue
Paralanguage, Proxemics, Facial expression
Courteous, Approachable, Friendly, Competent,
Communication in this organization also takes the written form and it usually prevails in the form of resumes, memos, marketing literature, notices, meal orders and balance sheets. Electronic communication is also common especially when the managers as well as their subordinate employees may exchange important work-related information through email. Customers also have a tendency of writing emails when making hotel bookings. The use of written form of communication in this organization is beneficial as it enhances availability of accurate records that managers and other employees can refer from in case they need to capture the specific time and dates during which they need to make reservations for the guests (Lucas 2013, 49). Written communication helps to maintain image of the organization by promoting formality that should be prevail between the company and the clients. Written communication is however disadvantageous in that it tends to be more costly that verbal and non-verbal communication. This is because the company needs to install appropriate facilities like computers, communication papers, and office administrators. This form of communication also inhibits maintenance of any possible secret as it demands for the discussion of every business-related detail in black and white.
Organizational culture describes the values and conducts that contribute to distinct social as well as the psychological environment prevailing within an organization. According to Vrdoljak (2007, 212), understanding aspects of organizational culture is important so as to understand how possible change, which comes as certain aspects of the organization change, can be managed. The Emirate Palace Hotel has a unique organizational culture that can be understood through employing different approaches. Greet Hofstede’s cultural dimension indicates that Emirate Palace Hotel is characterized by high power distance. This means that there is invisible power inequality between the subordinate members and the organizational managers. This means that managers assume an autocratic role of controlling all decision making activities in the organization. Changing the management approach can however help to change this cultural aspect. This can be realized through encouraging subordinate participation in decision making, which would eventually promote equal power distribution. (Audu 2015, 23). The Emirate Palace Hotel also has high uncertainty avoidance, and it thus adopts strict rules to prevent innovations whose consequences might be unpredictable. The company can however study the wider industry environment in order to establish how certain innovative ideas have impacted other organizations in the industry. Employees in this organization further exhibit a high level of collectivism rather than being individualistic in that they pursue to accomplish collective goals of the wider organization while overlooking their personal goals. Managers in this company should however adopt motivational factors like career development and increment in remuneration, which would eventually balance organizational and individualistic interest thereby changing the currently prevailing culture. (Vrdoljak 2007, 234) will always reflect individualism as well as the collectivism. The company has a low masculinity-femininity distinction, which means that women can be assigned to roles that should naturally be allocated to men and vice versa. This means that women can be assigned to the role of driving clients to and from the airport while men assume simpler roles within the company. While such roles may sometimes be risky to women especially during the night, adopting the modern technology to promote surveillance can help to reduce the insecurity impact perpetuated by this cultural aspect. The Emirate Palace is inclined towards short-term orientation where it only uses long-held traditions to enhance quality service delivery while on the other hand viewing possible change of these traditions with traditions. The company should however take a more pragmatic perspective where it should adopt modern education and technology to improve employee expertise and eventually prepare them for the future. (Audu 2015, 32).
In addition to Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, the organization’s culture can be analyzed using O’Reilly’s cultural dimension. According to this model, hospitality organizations can be distinguished by the unique values that they reinforce. The Emirate Palace Hotel is distinguished by attributes like innovativeness, stability, team orientation and respect for people (Lucas 2013, 71). It thus employs these attributes when determining the most appropriate category of people suited for certain tasks within the organization. Such employees usually include those with values that are closely related to organizational values. This cultural dimension can however change through adopting modern education and training opportunities to equip employees with desired skills (Iancu 2013, 62).
In order to ensure that a business organization within the hospitality industry is able to achieve the highest level of expected standards, managers should assume a central role in leading as well as motivating the team to achieve the agreed goals. Leadership defines an aspect of social influence where an individual can procure the support of other individuals in pursuing a common task. Managers can lead their teams in realizing agreed goals by encouraging each team player to exhibit his/her own strengths while snatching the opportunity to shine. This means that team members will not be deprived to participate simply because they exhibit certain deficits but they will instead be paired up with other people that are likely to fill up for the deficiency (Vrdoljak 2007, 250). This way, organizational managers are able to ensure that certain individuals are not limited by certain innate deficiencies but they instead work together in teams and ultimately meet the expected results. Managers should also lead individuals by encouraging them to be transparent in situations where things go wrong. This will ensure that the manager is able to bring together individuals that are not going into the desired direction and guide them on how they can promote the realization of the desired goals. The manager should also establish ground rules that will aid in understanding how he/she likes to operate. The manager can for example insist that every team player contributes something towards realizing the agreed outcomes, which will ensure that each person is able to commit his/her efforts in realizing the desired goals (Audu 2015, 37).
Similarly, managers can motivate employees to commit their efforts towards certain goals that will ultimately lead to the realization of agreed outcomes. According to Ghazzawi (2011, 131), motivation describes the state of encouraging employees to exalt a greater level of effort towards realizing certain goals. To achieve this objective, managers can adopt certain motivation theories in order to ensure that individuals commit themselves towards realizing the agreed overall goals. Managers can employ the Maslow theory, which is primarily founded on the concept of human needs. Managers can for example promote self-actualization through enhancing personal growth among the hospitality staffs, promote higher self-esteem, as well as promote the accomplishment of certain physiological needs. This would motivate individuals to pursue the agreed organizational goals after realizing that their personal needs have been met. Hospitality managers can also use the Herzberg theory to motivate team members in a hospitality organization to achieve an agreed goal (Iancu 2013, 75). This theory states that there are certain factors, which are commonly known as hygiene factors that often cause job satisfaction and others, known as the motivator factors that cause dissatisfaction. Managers in the hospitality organization should thus identify and promote factors that are likely to cause job satisfaction, which would ultimately motivate employees to pursue the agreed goal (Wood 2009, 87).
The managerial decision to support the achievement of agreed goals and objectives is justified by the need to increase overall organizational performance. This is because motivating employees may encourage them to commit more effort in delivering their expected outputs, which in return improves overall organizational productivity. Supporting hospitality staffs to meet agreed goals is also appropriate in that it protects them from facing difficulties that may not only lower their overall output but which may also demoralize them. Supporting employees for example enables employees facing certain skill deficiencies to make progressive strides that they otherwise may not be able to make without relevant support (Wood 2009, 99).
In order to ensure that employee motivation is improved, hospitality managers should come up with strategies that can develop employees in order to ensure that their productivity is drastically improved. Hospitality managers should ensure that employees do not only receive tangible reinforcements intended to motivate them but they should also make ensure that training opportunities are made available to the employees. This will ensure that employee skills are constantly improved thereby promoting their overall productivity. Managers should also provide promotion opportunities in order to allow employees to climb up into higher positions. This will further motivate them to commit their efforts towards realizing agreed goals especially because they feel that their growth is going hand-in-hand with that of the wider organization.
Managers are important assets in a given hospitality organization as they are bestowed with the responsibility of coordinating activities of subordinate members to ensure that the overall organization is successful. Most hospitality managers employ the autocratic, consultative or persuasive style of management depending on the factors influencing a particular hospitality organization. Each of these styles is distinct and it either includes total disengagement of subordinate members in decision making process as is the case with the autocratic style or total participation of the subordinate members as is the case with the democratic approach. Developing a good hospitality manager also includes possessing quality leadership characteristics that range from proper communication skills, knowledge, and social etiquette. Hospitality managers are also responsible for coordinating the communication process, which can either be verbal, non-verbal, as well as written. Managers also oversee the implementation of proper organizational culture that can then be employed to manage change in the organization. Managers further lead as well as motivate employees to realize agreed goals that enhance their overall productivity and the ultimate performance of the organization,
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