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Sample Research Paper on Language and Gender

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Sample Research Paper on Language and Gender

Introduction

In the current world, a higher percentage of the global human population uses slang language to enhance understanding during the communication process. A common way of verbal communication, the use of slang language involves a speaker sending messages to the listeners or audience through the use of non-standard words and phrases, which may not be understood by a certain group of people. It is common that listeners or audiences judge speakers and their messages on the basis of what they see and hear. Through the use of slang language, speakers are capable of verbally conveying a vast amount of information to their listeners. It is argued the use of slang, which is the widely used form of verbal communication today, makes up more than half of all human communication worldwide. Verbal communication has for a long time been used by speakers to add emphasis as well as clarity of their words (Carpenter, 2013). Most listeners are easily convinced through the effective verbal communication, and they easily understand the conveyed message when the speaker articulates the words of a particular language clearly. Most importantly, when using slang language, speakers should ensure that their conveyed message or information is in line with that which was initially intended for the listeners. If this does not occur, and the use of slang conveys information that is irrelevant to the intended, it is highly likely that the listeners will be distracted. The emphasis by communication experts that language influences listening skills cannot be overlooked. This means that the more the verbal communication used by a speaker, the higher the chances of grasping the attention of the listeners.

Research shows that men are more inclined to the use of slang language than women. With increases in opportunities and participation for men in every sector of the modern world, they have been at the forefront in ensuring that their communication is dominated with the slang language (Carpenter, 2013). The difference between women and men in terms of slang language use to some extent is owed to the change in generation and socio-cultural influence. Men have gone overboard and feel that unlike modern-day women, they have the right to pass their grievances and complaints to the global society. In conferences, meetings, sports events, and other avenues, the over-involvement and participation shown by men is rarely seen in women. Also, the number of men in TV programs and stage plays has tripled that of women in the recent years, and this may be attributed to the fact that such platforms require frequent use of verbal communication that has been evident in the use of slang language, which has been largely embraced by men. In this study, the target phenomenon is the use of slang language, and attention is on the comparison of slang language use in men and women. This study underscores the fact that men use slang language more frequently than men, and this explains the verbal communication difference between males and females in the world today.

Three main research questions that guided the study on whether men use slang more frequently than men: First is the number of men using slang during communication higher than that of women? Second, are men more likely to use slang than women during meetings and conferences? Do men use slang language more effectively than women? Arguably, from the data collected during the study, and from previous research, it is agreeable that there are more men using slang than women. Also, it is true that male speakers in meetings and conferences are more likely to use slang language than their female counterparts. Moreover, research shows that men use slang language more effectively during communication than women.

According to Parkins (2012), there is an assumption that women are more emotionally expressive than men. Unlike men who are often angry, women express the emotions of happiness, sadness, and fear through the use of standard words and phrases, and this underlines the fact that women use slang less frequently than men in almost every situation and context. The importance of this study is evident in the fact that it gives answers and explanations to the numerous and endless debates on who between men and women use slang language more. Also, this study is expected to aid future researchers who might be interested in conducting studies on the same.

Methods

During the study, the researchers visited and compared two conference meetings, one for women and another for men.  A female researcher was chosen to attend the women’s conference meeting. This is attributed to the fact that the presence of a man in a conference hall full of women would distract both the speaker and the audience, thus interfering with the data collection process. A male researcher was sent to attend the men’s conference meeting, as it would have been difficult for the audience to have any suspicions.

The researchers in both situations observed the proceedings and took notes. In the women’s conference meeting, the participants were approximately two hundred in number and were organized and attentive to the speaker. The conference hall was large, and apart from using a public address system, Rose the female speaker was seen to emphasize her points through the use of formal English language. She used standard words and phrases of the English language to convey her message to the listeners. By listening to the speaker use the formal English language, the researcher could notice that the listeners nodded their heads in agreement, and this meant that their understanding was enhanced. In the men’s conference meeting, the participants were slightly over a hundred in number. The small number helped the researcher observe the proceedings with ease. Peter, the speaker, was seen to give more explanations using slang language. He frequently posed questions to the listeners, and the use of slang in the process was dominant. Most of the listeners enjoyed the whole speech and responded to the questions posed by the speaker in slang throughout the conference meeting.

After observations, the researchers took photographs and recorded the proceedings of the two conference meetings on videotapes. During the analysis of the collected data, pilot studies were conducted on the recorded videotapes. The data collected was qualitative; thus no mathematical analysis was required. The pilot studies conducted had two outcomes: fine tuning of the research design and the construction of a list of specific questions regarding the data collected. They two research assistants then had a view of the recorded videotapes and came up with detailed compilations of what they observed. An overall investigator then analyzed the videotapes of the two conference meetings independently and compiled information that was added to those of the two research assistants. The data of the investigator and that of the research assistants were then harmonized and compiled, after a lengthy review of the videotapes. Comparison of the data collected from the different study sites was also done, and this played an integral role in the compilation of the final results. The data collected gave a revelation that there is a significant difference between men and women when it comes to the use of gestures, particularly during communication processes. The results of the study were: (1) men used slang more than women (2) women were reluctant in using slang language, and (3) listeners’ concentration was enhanced by the use of slang language.

 

Results/Discussion
Women Used slang less frequently

In the women’s conference meeting, it was observed that the use of slang was less prominent. Although, there were female speakers who use slang at certain points, the number of women who were seen and recorded to ignore the use of slang language was higher. From the onset of the conference meeting, the research assistant observed that the listeners were not involved and did not take part in the communication process, except when the speakers used slang to convey their messages to the listeners. The first speaker Rose was seen to use Standard English words and phrases in a bid to emphasize her facts. Mary, also a speaker was observed to use Standard English words and phrases before the listeners who nodded in agreement with the point she was trying to put across. At the end of Mary’s speech, only a few listeners applauded in unison, an implication that most of the listeners were lost concentration throughout the speech. The third speaker was Jeane, and she was heard using a high and globally accepted standard of the English language. In fact, some of the listeners had a rough time understanding her message. It could be observed that through the use of the standard English words and phrases, most of the listeners lost concentration, and were seen whispering. It was recorded that the total number of speakers throughout the women’s conference meeting was 30. Out of the 30 speakers, 28 used Standard English words and phrases with only two preferring to use slang language. The above data is summarized as follows:

 

No slang

Slang

Total

Number of women

28

2

30

 

From the above table, it is observable that out of the 30 female speakers who conveyed their message to the listeners in the women’s conference meeting, 28 of them used Standard English to deliver or convey their message to the audience. It can also be observed that only two female speakers used slang to deliver or convey their intended message.

To interpret these observations, focusing on numerous studies on slang language use by women would be essential. As articulated by Parkins (2012), women express emotions such as sadness, happiness, or fear, and during communication, they often prefer to convey their emotions to listeners or audiences through a language that is easily understandable and formal. Parkins (2012) adds that face-to-face communication, which was observed in the conference meeting, gives a provision of the use of languages that aid in determining when it is appropriate to express specific emotions. It is also argued that women convey their information best through the use of standard and official languages. Thus, the above data can easily be interpreted. The higher number of women (28) who used Standard English language in the meeting underscores the fact that several women often communicate through gestures. From the data, it can be concluded that a number of women who give preference to the use of standard forms of words and phrases worldwide is very high.

Men used slang language more

During the men’s conference meeting attended by one of the research assistants, it was noted that unlike the women’s meeting, the use of slang language was dominant. Apparently, the research assistant was in a position to observe that none of the male speakers during the function ignored the use of slang language. In contrast to the women’s conference meeting, listeners in the men’s conference hall concentrated throughout the meeting, with most of them responding to the questions posed by the speakers. One of the speaker’s Peter, arguably the first read a written speech and gave explanations to the listeners in slang language. The second speaker was John, and as the predecessor, he gave a long speech to the audience and used slang language to give elaborations and explanations. It was observed that John was interested in the concentration and that was evident in the conference hall. After his speech, he went straight to his seat joyfully. The other prominent speaker was Jason, and despite the low energy he exhibited when conveying his message to the listeners, he made use of slang language throughout his speech. The research assistant present recorded that the total number of speakers in the men’s conference meeting was 25. Out of the 25 speakers, all of them used slang throughout the meeting, and this means that all of them preferred slang to standard language. The above data is analyzed in the table below:

 

No slang

Slang

Total

Number of men

0

25

25

 

From the information shown in the table above, it can be observed that out of the 25 male speakers who were engaged in a face-to-face communication with the listeners during the conference meeting, all of them (25) used slang language.

DeVito (2002) states that although the use of slang language remains an essential way of communicating the exact meanings as verbal messages; men have for a long time overlooked the phenomenon. DeVito (2002) goes ahead to mention that during the process of communication, people prefer to evade the use of formal language. From this perspective, it can be seen that during the meeting, men gave preference to going the slang way. Hence, the conclusion that the number of men using slang is significantly higher than that of women using the same cannot be refuted.

Listeners’ concentration was enhanced by slang use

From the studies conducted in both conferences, it was observed that the speakers, particularly men who used slang were lively, and this motivated the listeners. The level of concentration of listeners when a speaker used slang was high, and some applauded. The research assistants found out that since the use of slang was dominant in the men’s conference meeting, the male listeners were lively and were largely involved in the communication process. Female speakers such as Mary and Rose had a rough time dealing with their listeners as they managed to attract their attention. On the other hand, the male speakers were seen to have an easy time conveying their message to their listeners. They had effective communication skills and used more of the slang language, and this resulted in the concentration among their listeners.

To interpret this information, Morett et al (2012) argues that verbal communication positively influences the communication process. It is argued that when a speaker uses slang, the concentration of the listeners or audience is enhanced. Also, it is argued that listeners are more likely to acquire and retain information when slang language is used by speakers as compared to when it is not used (Arosenius, 2011). Thus from the study, the fact that slang language enhances the concentration of listeners is supported.

Conclusion

Studies done in men’s and women’s conference meetings on the use of slang language could come up with numerous findings including those in this study. The findings from such situations and contexts revolve around the argument that who between men and women uses slang language more. Arguably, in the world today, men are seen to use gestures more during face-to-face communications than their female counterparts. In this study, it was found out that men used gestures more than women, women were reluctant in using gestures, and that the concentration of listeners was enhanced by the use of slang language. These findings support the fact that men use slang more frequently than women in the current world. As articulated in several studies, women are seen to express their emotions such as happiness, fear, and joy through the use of standard words and phrases whereas men are seen to be reluctant when it comes to expressing emotions. Thus, men find it easier than women to convey information through the use of slang language. The differences between men and women are evident through various platforms, and the fact that men use slang more than women underscore the verbal differences between the two. It should be noted that this study gives answers and explanations to the numerous and endless debates on who between men and women uses slang more. Furthermore, the study’s findings can help experts come up with strategies for ensuring that women embrace slang language when conveying information to listeners, as this enhances concentration and understanding. This study is expected to aid future researchers who might be interested in conducting studies on the same. Future researchers will gauge the credibility of their findings on the same topic from this study. It cannot be ignored that this study explores and gives additional detailed information to that of past research on the same.

 

 

 

 

References

Arosenius, D. (2011). A study on the impact of visual cues in listening comprehension on Swedish learners of English. rapport nr.: SPL kandidatuppsats i engelska SPL 2011-050

Carpenter, J. P. (2013). Non-verbal communication: the key to understanding others and communicating effectively. Psychology, 6(1), 109-114. 

DeVito, J. A. (2002). Human Communication. The Basic Course, 146-147. 

Morett, L. M., Gibbs, R. W., & MacWhinney, B. (2012). The role of gesture in second language learning: Communication, acquisition, & retention. In proceedings of CogSci.

Parkins, R. Ó. I. S. Í. N. (2012). Gender and emotional expressiveness: An analysis of prosodic features in emotional expression. Griffith Working Papers in Pagmatics and Intercultural Communication, 5

 

 

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