Sample Literature Review Paper on Second Language Acquisition Theories

Assessment Evaluation and Research
Language acquisition does not require prospects such as enacting of extensive use of conscious
grammatical rules, including tedious drill. It requires fostering of meaningful interaction in the
target language through natural communication. With this in mind, the speakers should be
concerned about understanding the message being conveyed, and not the form of their
utterances. Therefore, “comprehensible input” is eminent and paramount for second language
acquisition. In fostering second language learning among students, the best approach entails
“supply input” when the level of anxiety among the learners is low. In addition, the messages
being conveyed must be meet the expectations of the leaners. In addition, the cultural factors of
the leaners must be put to consideration since they influence the process of second language
acquisition (Song, 2018). For instance, if the language encompasses the cultural aspects that are
outlined in the leaners` culture, then developing interest and motivation grows fast.
The benefits of assessment for English Leaners on standardized testing compared to performance
based testing are evident in second language acquisition among leaners. For instance,
standardized testing allows the English language teacher to effectively establish the variables
such as motivation, self-confidence, anxiety levels, and self-image that could be affecting a
learner`s language acquisition process. On the other hand, performance based testing cannot
yield better results in English second language acquisition because this form of assessment does
not look into critical factors in language acquisition such as the leaner`s culture and the natural
order. Demonstration of language growth among leaners is evident when these individuals are
able to understand the meaning of different word phrases and construct simple sentences using
the second language. Equally, the anxiety and motivation of the learners increases as they want
to venture more into understanding it.

L1 vs. Analysis
According to Krashen`s Theory of Second Language Acquisition, there are different aspects that
need attention when enacting second language acquisition among leaners. He describes that the
first stage is acquisition learning that requires meaningful interaction in the target language
through a process of natural communication. The second level of language acquisition entails the
monitor hypothesis that is the practical result of the learned grammar and various aspects within
the language. Proponents such as the leaner having sufficient time, focusing on correctness, and
knowing the rules of the language are well elaborated. Therefore, Krashen`s theory of language
acquisition provides that second language acquisition takes place through progresses along the
“natural order.” This is achievable when the leaner receives second language input that is a step
ahead of his or her current level of linguistic competence.
Noam Chomsky`s theory of second language acquisition denotes that the Language Acquisition
Device (LAD is an instinctive mental ability that allows the learner to acquire and produce the
second language. Therefore, he provides that leaners must have innate knowledge of grammar to
effectively learn a second language (Broad, 2020). For instance, English language phonology
entails the study of basic sounds and speech patterns. For instance, vowels sounds, consonant
sounds, and English dialects are some of the proponents evident in its phonology. On the other
hand, the leaner should be instilled with the morphology of English language that entails the
study of the smallest units called words. In this regard, the word root, affixes, suffixes, bases,
inflections and phonemes should be adequately addressed. For example, the word “rat” has a
single morpheme, while the word “rats” has two, with the –s describing plurality.



Song, S. (2018). Second language acquisition theories. In Second Language Acquisition as a
Mode-Switching Process (pp. 9-36). Palgrave Pivot, London.
Broad, D. (2020). Literature Review of Theories of Second Language‎ Acquisition. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 7(1), 80-86.