Sample Literature Review Paper on History

Question Two

African- American literature refers to the body of research produced in the United States
of America by people of Africa can decedents though Americans. In the 19th century, it was a
time of radical transformation of the African Americans in the legal and political status. The
Africans enjoyed more rights after been freed from the slave trade.
The first path to success as proposed was that Africans should educate themselves, learn useful
trades as well as investing in their businesses. They believed by doing it; it would prove a point
to the American's need for blacks to the American economy. The other path developed was the
forming of unions and accessing of jobs in the north. Additionally, according to Marcus Garvey,
he proposed for self-development of the African American. He created a different economy and
society driven by the African Americans within the United States, as he believed white would
never accept blacks as equals. (Abdallah, 2015).
The difference between approaches by Washington and Dubois was that Washington
advocated for self-development of African Americans and improved their wellbeing, equal
voting rights, and was against unequal railroad facilities. He was for African American
Independence. On the contrary, DuBois was against capitalism and advocated for socialism, and
he believed that they should first get rid of segregation
Question four

Rapid population growth has led to urbanization and the development of cities across the
world. This is because major urban areas and towns have more to offer to the residents about
better economic and social development and higher standards of living (Young, 2017).


Employment opportunities in urban areas are higher hence rural-urban migration. For example,
quality healthcare is affordable in cities; therefore, higher birthrates and lower death rates.
However, there are problems associated with the rapid urban population growth. These include
resulting in unplanned housings a congestion (shanties) Example is Soweto in South Africa.
There is also increased pollution of environments, traffic jams, urban poverty, and decay of
moral standards, e.g., there is higher prostitution in major cities and political violence.
Urbanization has led to economic development and a higher standard of living. Secondly,
the higher population has brought about agglomeration economies where there is a division of
labor and economies of scale hence higher productivity
Question six

During the progressive era in the 20th-century reformers looked to address the problems
of cities in America. The reformist founded settlement houses that aimed at providing services to
the poor residents and immigrants. Jane Adams was an activist and community organizer. Jane
Addams saw the plight of the immigrants. She pioneered the social settlement movement,
appreciating the dynamic between theory and action (Shields, 2017). Jacob Riis documented the
lives of the poor in the city; he exposed how the other halves lived, i.e., rich and poor, while Jane
Addams helped poor people to gain a skill to be successful by living and providing opportunities
for the underprivileged. An example is that she housed less privilege at Hull house for them to
learn skills

Question seven

The progressive era brought about reforms whose objectives were to eliminate
government corruption, pass antitrust laws.


An example is moving of legislation, for instance, Amendment that proposed a federal income
tax, the other Amendment allowed for the direct election of Senators, while the 18th
Amendment prohibited sales of additional alcohol, Amendment was made that guaranteed
women the right to vote. During this era, protection for employees and consumers were enhanced
and eliminated unethical business practices. It also brought about financial reform when
Congress was pushed to pass the underwood traffic tax, which lowered tariffs. There was also
the creation of the Federal Reserve board that headed national banking systems (Johnson, 2016).
There were also regulations for the factory that working hours should be limited, as well
as compensation for injuries, and restriction for underage labor.
Question ten

Many working and progressive women re-evaluated their customs and attitudes, which
included a family structure that was seen to curtail women's freedom and independence.
Margaret Sanger championed women's rights to limit the number of children, which led to the
legalization of birth controls. Other women formed factions of movements that emphasized on
rights and individualism over service and duty (Dill, 2015). Other women devoted themselves to
the labor movement and actively being involved in strikes. For example, Elizabeth Gurley
formed and organized Industrial Workers of the World (IWW). Other women were peace

Question twelve

A lot of motives cause empires to expand their rule over countries and territories.
American interest in economic expansion developed after the civil war. They wanted new lands
to build an empire. Other Americans wanted a sense of mission, and they believed they would
lift the people they considered uncivilized. They were interested in sea power as it would provide


Access to world markets (Benito,2015). An example is Hawaii in 1898, which allowed the
United States to have control and possess all ports, buildings, and military equipment owned by
the government of the Hawaiian Islands. The motives were driven depending on race as they
believed the whites were superior to the black.




Abdallah, J. E. (2015). More to the story: Historical narratives and the African American past in
Maury County, Tennessee (Doctoral dissertation, Middle Tennessee State University).
Young, J. G. (2017). Making America 1920 again? Nativism and US immigration, past and
Present. Journal on Migration and Human Security, 5(1), 217-235.
Shields, P. M. (2017). Looking back: How Jane Addams challenged the frontiers of public
Administration, sociology, social work, peace studies, and philosophy-and why it matters
Johnson, K. S. (2016). Governing the American State: CongressCongress and the new
1877 1929 (Vol. 154). Princeton University Press.
Dill, B. T. (2015). Across the Boundaries of Race & Class: An Exploration of Work & Family
among Black Female Domestic Servants. Routledge.
Benito, G. R. (2015). Why and how motives (still) matter. The Multinational Business Review.