Sample Paper on International Relations

The fog of UN Peacekeeping: Ethical Issues regarding the use of Force to protect Civilians in UN Operations.

At least since the 20th century, there have been questions regarding how states as well as other international actors like the United Nations (UN), may utilize force for the purpose of ending atrocities, protecting individuals rights and restrain violence has been a common topic of discussion. According to this article, the UN peacekeepers were in most cases banned from utilizing force outside self-defense. This has however been changed by the UN officials and presently the peacekeepers in Congo, Sierra Leone, the Ivory Coast and Haiti are allowed to utilize for the purpose of protecting the civilians. After the Second World War, the international community introduced UN for the purpose of preventing new atrocities from taking place and international peace and security was identified as one of the key objectives[1]. This piece of writing mainly focuses on the matter that overwhelms the peacekeepers: how can they combine their attempts for the purpose of protecting civilians from mistreatment. It describes the fog of United Peacekeeping by indicating how the traditional guidelines are unsuccessful in the provision of ethical direction in present peace keeping operations. Rules of engagement offer directions for operations during military operations[2]. The two key aspects of rules engagement that troubles the ethical guidance sought by solders include the discretionary nature of those roles as well as the amalgamation of the political, legal as well as operation requirements of the military.

This article was appropriately and comprehensively written, and the author clearly outlined the purpose of the writing, which is clearly explained through out the paper. From the article, it is evident that the civilians are not passive livestock to be killed or protected; they are not supposed to wait for international intervention before trying to protect their own safety. In one way, their involvement makes them significant associates for the peacekeepers, providing information as well as capacities further than what global forces bring them. And on the other hand, the civilian institutions are always political players in that they have positions within the social wars that result in violence. Peacemakers who overlook these commitments may be drawn into wars as parties instead of providing background resources for the purpose of resolving such conflicts. From the article, it can be argued that what the best peacekeepers can do is to give a model of protection that ensures safety of the group members in conflicts that makes them join hands instead of protecting the civilians through separating them from the threats.

Negotiated peace for extortion: the case of Walikale territory in eastern DR Congo

Numerous accounts of the clash in DRC underrate the complexity of war economies. According to the Garrett, war in the DRC has been described as a way of getting access to natural resources as well as a plan of dominating the informal trading network that links DRC with the international markets. One overlooked feature is the continuance of systems of economic use into the post-conflict perspective[3]. Through its assessment of a militia group, which has been included into the FADRC (the 85th Dridge in Walikale territory), this piece of writing proposes that, in the current state of no-war-no-peace, a discussed , mutual accommodation of economic as well as political interests associated with security provision can be found. In fear of stability, the government is hesitant to remove the 85th Bridge from Walikale region. These elements of economic as well as political domination, weakens the DRC reformation process[4].

The intent of this piece of writing was apparently and comprehensively affirmed with the title of the paper. According to this article, it can be said that it is a great challenge for the policymakers as well as the private sectors to transform the Eastern DRC’s mineral deposits into a sustainable mining segment that can contribute to development. Attaining this necessitates a political process that can inspire the establishment of political institutions that can lead to the transformation of the incentive systems for economic drivers. These institutions are presently structured in a manner that weakens the state even more as they allow for security around the natural resources deposits to be arranged locally. Even though this kind of practice can present some short term benefit, in all possibility they underline a feed-back loop of feeble governance. From the article, it can be critically said that, notwithstanding the necessity for engagement and the potential for growth, there may never be an ideal solution for the challenges that faces the Eastern DRC in the short term. However, despite the increasing weakness in governance together with the high risks, there are adequate positive tendencies to say that the time is right to assist in promoting trade as well as productive economic activities[5].

 

 

From MONUC to MONUSCO and Beyond: Prospects for Reconstruction, State-building and Security Governance in the DRC

This article discusses about the proposed extraction of the UN peacekeepers in the DRC. It is noted that in the case of DRC, a majority of the analysts as well as the role players believe that the state is still very fragile and that is still very early for the UN peacemakers to leave DRC. Since the year 1999, the UN peacekeepers were deployed for the purpose of facilitating the implementation of various peace agreements in DRC[6]. Regardless of all their efforts, numerous and serious challenges keep on facing the DRC government as well as other role players, particularly the UN in their quest of security, recovery as well as growth since their outstanding holding of the 2006 elections. The motives for the DRC president’s insistence on the withdrawal of the UN were not very precise. He some how believed that the existence of huge peacekeeping operations made him appear weak. The DRC government was of the opinion that its own defense forces would be able to tackle the issue of safety in the absence of the UN force. According to this article, DRC tended to maintain a pattern of structural conflict and privatised governance that its government still needed to make great strides in establishing a secure as well as a peaceful environment particularly for civilians through rebuilding, state-building plus safety measures governance.

The author clearly outlined the intent of the article which is clearly illustrated throughout this piece of writing. In accordance with this article, it can be argued that without a doubt, with regard to the needs of the DRC government, the United Nations appeared to keep certain tranquillity seeking to temper their demands or speculation government of the removal of MONUC in the DRC. One would therefore want to know if this attitude of the international organization is a means of acting in accordance to its own standards, even though a government has to agree to them or not. If the DRC government was trying to save face to make it appear like a national opinion, but also communicated about its failures, it had the capability of defending the sovereignty, there was no proof that the UN would submit to this governmental request[7].

 

References

Blocq, Daniel S. “The fog of UN Peacekeeping: Ethical Issues regarding the use of Force to protect Civilians in UN Operations.” Journal of Military Ethics 5, no. 3 (November 2006): 201-213.

Garrett, Nicholas, Sylvia Sergiou, and Koen Vlassenroot. “Negotiated peace for extortion: the case of Walikale territory in eastern DR Congo.” Journal of Eastern African Studies 3, no. 1 (2009): 1-21.

Neethling, Theo. “From MONUC to MONUSCO and Beyond: Prospects for Reconstruction, State-building and Security Governance in the DRC.” South African Journal of International Affairs 18, no. 1 (2011): 23-41.

[1] Blocq, Daniel S. “The fog of UN Peacekeeping: Ethical Issues regarding the use of Force to protect Civilians in UN Operations.” Journal of Military Ethics 5, no. 3 (November 2006): 201-213.

[2] Ibid.,6

[3] Garrett, Nicholas, Sylvia Sergiou, and Koen Vlassenroot. “Negotiated peace for extortion: the case of Walikale territory in eastern DR Congo.” Journal of Eastern African Studies 3, no. 1 (2009): 1-21.

 

[4] Ibid

[5]Ibid., 13

[6] Neethling, Theo. “From MONUC to MONUSCO and Beyond: Prospects for Reconstruction, State-building and Security Governance in the DRC.” South African Journal of International Affairs 18, no. 1 (2011): 23-41.

 

[7] Ibid., 10