Organization structure is actually a strategy for organizations and institutions, on how business tasks are allocated, coordinated and supervised in order to attain a common objective as an organization. Organization structures always vary depending on the set goals and objectives. However, due to applying different theories of change in an organization to achieve the common objectives, the creation of different organizational structures appears. Theories of change are actually assumptions that are predicted, on relationships about changes and actions of an organization, that will help produce those changes. Therefore, organizations in order for them to be successful and achieve their goals and objectives, they need to be competent enough in managing the organizational changes affecting business operation, both within and without.
For instance the theory of Lewin theory of change, that focuses on different changes of an organization such as Field, Action Research and Group Dynamics. In this model (also referred to 3-Step Model), in field theory and group dynamic aspects of change, it analysis the understanding of the process of group formation as well as motivation (Hossan, Dixon and Brown, 2013, p. 855). All these aspects have an impact in organizational structure and by understanding them better on how they can be considered to make positive organizational culture and strategies. These different stages of this theory are classified in stages for the organization’s success, and they include the unfreezing, moving and the refreezing stages. The first stage, is a balance forces that are constructed by driving forces and restraining forces with an aim to initiate change in an organization. The moving stage focuses on the utilization of the internal resources for researches concerning business operations and come up with solutions to come up with a new route. The last stage takes place after the organization has a clear route and therefore group behaviors are crystallized to ensure business operation are done in the relevant manner (Soonsawad, 2010, p. 53).
In Lippitt’s Phases of Change Theory, it is dictated that for effective commitment by all parties of an organization who contribute to its workforce, there must be vision, skills, incentives, resources, and action plan (Platt, 2008, p. 39). In this theory, it shows the importance of firstly showing the vision of an organization, for the people in the organization to understand the kind of approach used on health, environmental issues as well as environmental safety. Through this, there will be clear communication to all the parties involved in the objectives and duties of the organization. The organization should however ensure that it has analyzed for the best skills to maximize on the available resources of the organization for better performance. And in order for the organization to ensure great performance are maintained by their stakeholders, they need to ensure that they motivate the staffs by rewarding them often (Bahavar and Truelson, 2008, p. 357).
The social cognitive theory, focuses on how people usually perceive themselves and other people in social environments (McCormick and Martinko, 2004, p. 2). Through this model, it shows the need for business managements to create a special organizational structure, where its workforce will be able to share their personal issue with someone, in order for them to work effectively without any hindrances. Understanding the theories of interaction of the workforce in an organization is importance for the management and other stakeholders will be able to understand how to approach and understand different persons with different social views (Siegal, 2004, p. 79).
Due to the different stakeholders and clients in an organization from different cultures, they will all have different beliefs and background and therefore, in order for the management of the organization ensures that the objectives are met, and no conflicts arise between any of their stakeholders, it will have to ensure that it comes up with the proper planning of distribution of duties, where different cultures are mixed in a department to work together. Through this, the staff will be able to interact and understand each others difference, therefore creating much respect for each other.
When it comes to cross-cultural issues affecting an organization, for instance in a country like the United States, many citizens come from different races, religion and therefore cultures, and this differences in arganization may lead to an organization’s delay in achieving its goals abd objectives. Therefore, the organization needs to create an environment where the different cultures are able to respect and work together for the organization sake. For instance creating final fiscal period parties, where all stakeholders are able to interact and relate as well as contribute to ideas that would benefit the country. This will therefore improve on the organizational structure.
However, when it comes to mergers, it at times becomes a challenge due to this differences. However, the merger parties should ensure that they give tasks dividing equally from all parties and with different cultures, for them to learn and work as a team.
Organizations usually face both internal and external forces, that lead them to make changes for them to achieve its objectives. For instance, technology is one of the external forces that has lead many organizations to adapt to different technological aspects to better their goods and services. In Lippitt’s theroy, we understand the need of an management to assess it resorces in order to maximize them to create apply new technologies in their goods and services. Actually, this falls in the action plan factor of the theory. Therefore the organizations should assess and analyze all factors that may affect the operations of the business and come with plans to strive during the changes (Platt, 2008, p. 40).
Competition is also one of the external forces that lead to organizational changes. Organizations need to ensure that they optimize their competitors’ weaknesses, to maximize on their performance. Most businesses may flop by failing to be curious on what the competitors are up to and what the customers in the market expect from different products and services. Therefore, having strategies planned, the business will be able to control the market compared to its competitors (Bahavar and Truelson, 2008, p. 407).
However, due to the increase of globalization in many markets, organizations should ensure that they set much barriers to entrance in their market, through making positive strategies and decisions for the organization. Therefore, focusing on the environment, in relation to Lewin’s theory, will help determine the level of flexibility the organization is in that market (Hossan, Dixon and Brown, 2013, p. 860).
According to the social cognitive theory, culture is an internal force that has pushed to changes. Organizations should consider creating a respectful organization structure by employing persons from different cultures and putting them to work together in order for them to interact and understand each other, and through this they will be able to respect each other (McCormick and Martinko, 2004, p. 5). Organizations therefore should avoid appointing people with similar cultures in similar department, since they will only embrace their culture and not others.
Innovation and product development are other internal forces that lead to creation of change and change in management. By understanding the main factors of the Lippitt’s Theory of change, an organization is able to create clear visions and skills that would would help in creating better innovations and product developments (Platt, 2008, p. 45).
Employee perception is a major factor that an organization need to observe to come with strategic changes. Employees tend to have different views about themselves, perhaps due to the positions they hold or cultures, and therefore they are affected in many ways, such that they are not able to undertake their time to time tasks effectively. The organization has an obligation in securing employee comfort and should create strategies that will benefit the employees in general.
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