Job descriptions are meant to assist business owners during a recruiting process to define the work they need to be done, employment basis, whether contract or permanent, the time required in doing a task, qualifications needed for the position, experience, and any other information they deem pertinent. Job description is a valuable tool that helps recruiters to identify candidates who are not qualified for a particular position; thus, reduces the odds of choosing the wrong person for the job (Wilson, 2006). It also helps the potential employees to comprehend their duties and what is expected from them. It can be essential in retaining and motivating the best talent by guaranteeing that employee and organization’s expectation are aligned with the roles (Barrick, Mount & Li, 2013).
Job descriptions can help HR managers perform people planning because they show a list of all the roles in the company (Lavigna & Hays, 2004). In the same way, they can show the positions that are not filled or areas of operations that are strained and help with future planning. A job description provides a common denominator for the hiring manager or supervisor and the employee to discuss particular deficiencies they notice in performance and work out the best training that can be used to overcome the noted shortcomings. Documentation of such discussions is recommended because they will be essential for future reference and succession planning in case the employee is terminated. Job descriptions also provide a quantitative standard by which performance of employees can be evaluated during objective appraisals to eliminate chances of emotional evaluations (Lavigna & Hays, 2004). While direct compensation ought not to be pegged on the job description, the tool allows hiring managers to research and determine the current market value of the role. They should help the HR to evaluate an employee’s internal value to establish how it fits within their compensation structure in comparison with other jobs. The tool provides a medium, which gives both the hiring manager and the employee common perspectives and understanding of the expected duties so that there will be no case of misinterpretations of accomplishments (Wilson, 2006).
Job descriptions can help HR managers in keeping the organization compliant with the labor/employment (Lavigna & Hays, 2004). For instance, the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) require employers to describe the working conditions in their job descriptions, specifying how safely the job can be performed and if the employee will perform hazardous activities.
Job descriptions have been blamed for typecasting employees by restricting their abilities to be initiative and innovative because they will only be doing what is covered in the job description (Royer, 2010). Innovation is known to improve procedures of businesses, and there is no organization that can survive in the current world without embracing it. On the other hand, it may also limit the hiring manager’s perspective of the employee’s potential and capabilities given that the hiring manager may tend to value the employee’s contribution through the fulfillment of the described position only.
Job descriptions need to be regularly checked for relevance and updated because the activities, technology applications, and position information change every day. Therefore, an employee’s position may become outdated or inadequate without proper investment in training and improving employees.
The Various Methods, Techniques, and Processes Involved In Performance and Job Analysis.
Job analysis provides the required information for recruiting the right people, to provide the necessary information for selecting these people as well as define the requirement for performance appraisal (Wilson, 2006). The processes involved in performance and job analysis include coming up with a job description, attracting applications, selecting candidates through short listing and assessment, making the appointment and joining the organization.
Methods, Techniques, and Processes Involved In Performance and Job Analysis
This technique involves the managers and supervisors keenly observing each employee to determine how they perform their tasks and responsibilities (Wilson, 2006). They record the outcomes of their observation such as performed responsibilities and duties or unfulfilled responsibilities and tasks, ways the employees used to perform their tasks and their mental ability to handle the challenges and risks emanating from the job. This method entails the direct study of an employee or a group of them and documenting the observed results. It may also involve the study of time and motion for a different type of employees in a different nature of workplace like a factory or jobs that require people to be in an assembly line.
This so far has been termed the easiest technique for job analysis, but there are much more challenges attached to this method and its outcomes. First, different individuals have varied ways of observing and deducing meaning from a situation, since they think and interpret things in their way. Additionally, people may tend to like some workers over the others and thus produce biased results based on the likes and dislikes towards individuals (Lavigna & Hays, 2004). Therefore, it is relevant to provide proper training to the managers, supervisors, job analysts or whoever may be conducting this procedure to avoid these unnecessary errors.
This method involves carefully coming up with the necessary questions to ask employees in an interview, so as to genuinely get their response about how they feel with regards to their job (Royer, 2010). This method seeks to unravel their honest opinions about the challenges they face during work, their insecurities and fears about their careers while working for the specific organization, their style of working and their emotional capabilities to handle the risks that come with their work. This technique involves scrutiny of the job by the employees themselves and this helps the job analysts comprehend what the employees think about their job (Wilson, 2006). This technique is, however, best done by having a group of employees together as the questions are asked and letting them answer on their free will. This gives the employees courage to respond honestly to the questions as they feel there are lower chances of being judged. The answers gathered from this talk are then generalized and used to characterize the views of the whole workforce.
This is another technique of job analysis which involves carefully drafting relevant questions for the exercise, which are not biased by employees’ levels and given to the workforce and the management to fill (Wilson, 2006). Unlike other techniques, this one holds more chances of producing force information, resulting in wastage of time, money and resources. To evade these errors, it is significant to notify the participants that the information derived from their feedback will be of their own good and that they will not be judged by what they say in the questionnaires prior (Barrick, Mount & Li, 2013).
The analyst gets the information from the previous documentations that relate to job analysis of the employees. This technique is very easy and aids in determining whether the analysis is advantageous or not. However, it may involve wrong assessment and may provide errors where previous bad performances are used to determine the outcome of the analysis.
Workers, in this method, are supposed to keep a chronological log of tasks done and the precise time spent on them (Royer, 2010). This method provides a daily view of how the work is and shows members of staff participation. However, major errors may occur when the employees forget their activities, leading them to provide distorted information (Lavigna & Hays, 2004).
Methods or Techniques to Recommend
The best method for job analysis would be the interview method since this has been found to present the most honest opinion if properly conducted.
Process or Methodology to Recommend
The best method to provide information about staffing level would be a combination of individual interviews such as appraisals and direct observation. This would give the analytical feedback needed since every employee would account for their time and resources provided. Additionally, an appraisal involves looking at all aspects of an employee performance as well as their views and feeling about the tasks they are entrusted to complete. It offers a clear analysis of the performance standard regarding quality and quantity and also outlines the rewards that are outlined to go with the specific achievement (Lavigna & Hays, 2004). It is important, however for the management to understand that they play a key role in laying the foundations of high productivity. For instance, they should be able to bring innovative employees on board and retain them, as well as set the direction and execute what needs to be done to motivate the employees.
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Barrick, M. R., Mount, M. K., & Li, N. (2013). The theory of purposeful work behavior: The role of personality, higher-order goals, and job characteristics. Academy of Management Review, 38(1), 132-153.
Lavigna, R. J., & Hays, S. W. (2004). Recruitment and selection of public workers: An international compendium of modern trends and practices. Public Personnel Management, 33(3), 237-253.
Royer, K. P. (2010). Job descriptions and job analyses in practice: How research and application differ.
Wilson, J. P. (2006). Human resource development: Learning & training for individuals & organizations. London [u.a.: Kogan Page.