The success of organizations depends on how employees perform their duties. As a result, most HR managers consider job analysis and descriptions as pivotal aspects in enhancing performance and administration. The rationale for job analysis is to point out and establish duties and requirements of a particular job. Job analysis focuses on the job and not the person undertaking the job. HR managers have to utilize knowledge, skills, abilities, and other competencies (KSAOCs) to develop job description and analysis. Job descriptions involve offering detailed account of functions, roles, working conditions, as well as reporting relationships of a particular job. An organization has to know why it has to hire employees, thus, having detailed information concerning certain jobs can help in determining the most suitable individuals to undertake the tasks.
Methodologies of Job Analysis
Job analysis is fundamental in human resources management as it assists in identifying the content of any job, based on the job requirements necessary to carry out particular activities. According to Smith (2015), job analysis enables the HR managers to gather and analyze information about all characteristics of an employee’s position. The analyst is required to understand the essential attributes of a particular job, how tasks should be carried out, and the skills that job holders should have to undertake the tasks effectively.
Although there are several methodologies of gathering job analysis information, HR managers are allowed to choose one, or a mixture of more than two, with regard to the needs of their organizations. One of the core methodologies of job analysis is KSAOCs. KSAOCs are the foundation of human capital, and are concerned with activities that determine the real worth of employees to the organizations (Condrey, 2010). Management of employees’ KSAOCs is fundamental to the HR professionals, as it enables them to develop an accurate job description that enhances performance and engagement.
When tasks become larger and sophisticated, hiring individuals who are endowed with KSAOCs would help in accomplishing a wide range of activities simultaneously and, consequently, fulfilling the organization’s goals. Having qualified workforce necessitates the HR managers to establish an innovative recruitment approach that considers KSAOCs, in addition to diversity of employees. Companies can only enhance performance management activities by tying all practices to KSAOCs.
- Changing Management Practices (CMP) Model
CMP model has become a popular methodology among the modern companies, owing to its capacity to enhance organizational competitiveness. The model creates awareness to employees concerning the need for change in their jobs, in addition to enhancing the desire to contribute towards change. CMP model offers cost-effective solutions concerning staffing, budget considerations, equipment, and facilities. The model works well in non-profit organizations because they focus much on growth and expansion of resources. A growing organization will always require more people to manage recruitment, training, retention, and communication with clients.
Slotting involves utilizing an existing ranking of occupations where new jobs are assessed based on other jobs that are already placed in the hierarchical order. The slotting process starts by collecting market data, which are tabulated and analyzed to create a market value. In this methodology, jobs that lack adequate market data are slotted into a hierarchy, but those with adequate data are graded based on the already existing grades. According to Herman (2011), slotting techniques is preferred by most organizations because it saves time and costs, since the costs of consultation on instituting internal equity is avoided while less staff are involved in its establishment.
- Point Factors
Another methodology for job analysis is point-factor, which enable the HR managers to establish a relative score of a particular job. Point-factor method is a compensable tactic for determining the job’s worth. A point-factor offers a structured method of evaluating a job, in addition to providing a relative objective and impartial view concerning the value of a job. This method identifies and evaluates a number of factors, sets up levels within each factor, and allocates points to each level (Herman, 2011). For instance, a bank clerk is worth less than a recruiting manager based on the skills required, as well as the working conditions.
Generally, the compensable factors with the point-factor evaluation incorporate skills, responsibilities, effort, as well as working conditions. The end product of point factors is a hierarchy of jobs, staring from the highest to the lowest job, depending on the value allocated to each job. Point factor may consider internal equity, which is the perception of fairness that organizations apply while compensating employees. Point factor is vital in the job description, as it enable the HR managers to communicate job expectations.
Job Analysis for Various Occupations
- Bank Clerk
Knowledge: Bank clerks should be knowledgeable in balancing of books, recording customer details, and organizing loan information. They should be excellent in communication skills and proficient in both management and organizational skills.
Skills: Bank clerks should be excellent in numerical and calculation skills, as well as IT skills. They should be thorough, neat, and accurate in their tasks. They should be honest, trustworthy, and welcoming. Bank clerks should be attentive to details, in addition to being skilful in transaction processes.
Abilities: Since bank clerks spend most of their time at the counters, good communication is paramount, as one has to deal with customers directly. Bank clerks should be capable of assisting customers to carry out bank transactions, in addition to answering their questions. Interviews skills are necessary when interrogating customers who want loans.
Other Competencies: Bank clerks should have the capacity to work tidily and accurately. Being honest and trustworthy is essential when dealing with customers.
Job Description for Bank Clerk
Bank clerks, who also work as tellers, are entry-level employees who main responsibility is to keep in contact with the banks’ customers. Bank clerks can work in any department in the bank, since their responsibilities are to keep records within that department. They have to assist customers to apply and secure loans, in addition to advising them on modes of payment. Bank clerk job does not require formal education, but employers seek for individuals with a diploma or equivalent. Individuals who are hired to undertake the clerk job undergo an internal training to master their responsibilities. Bank clerks work under the bank manager.
- Tasks and Responsibilities
Other duties and responsibilities of bank clerks include:
- Preparing monthly balance sheets for the customers
- Helping customers to open various accounts with the bank
- Coordinating with other departments on financial matters
- Handling bonds and foreign currencies
- Reporting discrepancies to the relevant authority
- Accepting payments for mortgage, loans, and utilities
- Selling checks and money orders
- Promotion of bank products
- Handling miscellaneous activities as assigned
- Education Qualifications
- Candidates for bank clerk job should be Diploma holders in any field, but should be knowledgeable in mathematics, statistics, and accounting
- Knowledge of computer packages and computers is mandatory
- During interviews, bank clerks can be evaluated on clerical skills
- Working Condition
- Bank clerks are expected to work for about 35 to 40 hours every week
- They are also expected to be flexible, as they can be required to work on evening shifts or weekend shifts
- Staff Training Coordinator
Knowledge: Staff training coordinators should be conversant with instructional design theory, as well as implementation. They should be familiar with traditional and modern methods of training, which can transform operations in organizations. Training coordinators should good planners, who understand the needs of individual employees. Understanding of learning management systems, in addition to training methodologies and instructional design is necessary in this occupation.
Skills: Staff training coordinators should be excellent in designing and preparing educational aids and materials that are necessary for conducting training. They should be skillful in assessing instructional effectiveness and evaluating the impact of training employees on certain skills. Excellent communication skills are vital for dealing with diverse workforce. Judgment and coaching skills are necessary to enhance training needs. Computer skills, and in particular, MS Office proficiency is mandatory in carrying out training and coordination.
Abilities: Staff training coordinators should be able to conduct organization’s need assessment to identify the gaps that could be filled with new knowledge. They should have proven ability in completing full training cycle, which incorporates assessing needs, planning, developing, coordinating, monitoring, and evaluation. They should also demonstrate the capacity to offer train-the-trainer sessions, which integrate internal subject matter experts.
Other Competencies: Training coordinators should be friendly and welcoming, as they are responsible for welcoming visitors within the company’s offices. They should also be aware of organizational culture, which would assist them in inculcating norms into employees through training.
Staff training coordinators can also be referred to as HR development coordinators, or training specialists. They are involved in evaluating the training needs for the coming employees, as well as the existing employees. They liaise with internal partners on matters concerning employee training needs. Training coordinators design training aids, which include handbooks, brochures, and manuals, in addition to informing employees about the planned training. They offer feedback to program participants, as well as communicate to the management concerning training. Staff training coordinators report to HR Manager.
- Tasks and Responsibilities of Staff Training Coordinators
- Assessing both internal and external training programs that tackles competency gaps
- Collaborate with other stakeholders to offer training needs
- Designing training manuals and handbooks
- Designing and applying assessment tools that evaluate training effectiveness
- Organize training plans for individual employees
- Maintaining good relationships with external training agencies
- Managing training budget
- Updating training design and methodology
- Develop and organize training programs to fit specific training needs
- Coordinating open training activities for all employees
- Education Qualifications
- Staff training coordinators need to have a Bachelor of Science degree in the field of education, human resources, training, or any other related field
- They should have a professional experience in instructing and training people
- Knowledge on presentation, Windows, and other related programs is mandatory
- Competency assessment and certification on training and development is vital
- Working Condition
- Staff training coordinators can work inside or outside the company’s administration office or in manufacturing plant
- The work involves much travelling, as well as wearing special uniform during training
- Training coordinators are expected to work in all conditions, depending on the prevailing weather
- Recruiting Manager
Knowledge: Recruitment managers should be competent in building a quality relationship with prospective customers and external recruitment agencies. They should be competent in arithmetic, geometry, statistics, as well as in grammar. They should be excellent in managing and developing teams that are involved in the recruitment. Designing training recruitment plans is necessary in order to develop a competent recruitment team. Knowledge on legal matters and government regulations is crucial to enhance ethics in recruitment.
Skills: Recruiting managers should be outstanding in communication skills, as well as negotiating skills. They should offer to listen to what other people suggest, allowing feedback, and apply logic in offering solutions. Recruitment managers are leaders in organizations, hence, they should be proficient in leadership and management skills. While the HR Mangers play a limited role in the recruitment, recruitment managers, who are part of the line managers, contribute immensely in the recruitment, training, and development practices (Brewster, Brookes & Gollan, 2015). They should be skillful in presentation and designing of recruitment programs. Knowledge on social media is necessary to enhance communication within and outside the company.
Abilities: Recruiting managers should be capable of solving issues concerning hiring, training, and other managerial decisions. They should be competent on applying general rules concerning relationship management, as well as in supervisory management. They should be capable of recognizing when something has gone wrong in order to institute a decision making process.
Other Competencies: Recruitment managers should understand the organization’s need to make decisions on who to hire. They should be aware of the organization’s financial status to avoid burdening the organization with unsustainable workforce.
Recruitment manager is involved in the interviewing of the job applicants, in addition to offering directions on the recruitment process. The manager is involved in luring the best talent into the organization. Recruitment manager collaborates with other departments to ensure that all the gaps in the organization are identified and the right people are hired to fill them. Nowadays, recruitment managers are involved in posting updates on the social media concerning available jobs and interview schedules.
- Tasks and Responsibilities
Some duties and responsibilities of recruitment managers include:
- Designing, developing, and maintaining the recruitment process in terms of description, measurements, and reporting
- Implementation of recruitment innovations, as well as offering decisions on the hiring process and attracting best candidates
- Monitoring labor legislation and executing required changes to enhance compliance
- Developing employment policies and administrating over the teams of recruiters
- Designing recruitment training program and procedures for recruitment, orientation, and compensation
- Planning and organizing seminars for counseling and training on hiring and selection decisions
- Representing the company on matters concerning employment
- Education Qualifications
- Recruitment managers should be bachelor’s degree holders in the fields of human resources, labor relations, and personnel administration
- A master’s degree in labor relations or business administration is an added advantage
- Recruitment managers have a chance to become General HR Managers through career progression
- Working Condition
- Sometimes recruitment managers are required to work overtime
- Eligibility for overtime is guide by the Fair labor Standards Act, as well as collective bargaining agreement
- Image Consultant
Knowledge: Image consultants make recommendations to their clients on what to wear, which color, and at which occasion. Knowledge on business consultancy, fashion therapy, beauty therapy, and sales and marketing are necessary in this occupation.
Skills: An image consultant must be passionate for fashion, as well as being up-to-date concerning the latest fashion. He/she must be adept in hiding body flaws and creative in thinking outside the box. He/she needs to be well organized well endowed with presentation and prospective skills. Good listening skills and the capacity to keep clients at ease are vital qualities in this endeavor.
Abilities: Image consultants assist clients in choosing makeovers, in addition to advising them on how to improve their verbal and non-verbal communication skills. They can also assist clients to undertake personal shopping for accessories and clothes. A positive approach to situations, and self motivation, are necessary ingredients in succeeding in image consultancy.
Other Competencies: Image consultants should be competent in presentation because they are supposed to deal with color that fit different occasions. They should know how to attract customers through creating websites and business cards. Styling for events, such as weddings, business meetings, and birthday parties, are essential in this field. Image consultants are also vital in directing training workshops, since they are competent in body language tactics.
Image consultants are hired to offer advice on visual appearance, thus, individuals with great passion for fashion can become excellent image consultants. Image consultants’ work is to assist their clients to alter, restore, or boost their image. They assist their clients to establish a wardrobe that suit different occasions, and work with fashion designers to improve their clients’ appearance. Their overall responsibility is to make their clients or organizations appeal to the public, thus, they assist in boosting their clients’ confidence.
- Tasks and Responsibilities
- Offering image enhancements
- Providing corporate services through seminars, coaching, as well as presentations
- Choosing garments that fit their clients’ personality
- Suggesting colors for particular occasions
- Choosing hairstyles, facial features, and skin tones for their clients
- Mastering fashion trends, make ups, and working with other fashion designers
- Offering professional enhancement program to individuals, as well as corporations
- Education Qualifications
- High school graduates
- Training on analyzing colors and images
- Working Conditions
- Image consultants can be home-based or working in organizations
- Most image consultants are self-employed and work on contracts in corporations or for individual persons
- Image consultants can work in many sectors, both public and private
- Image consultants have to travel to different places to meet their clients, as well as enlighten themselves on different fashion designs
Job analysis is fundamental to the human resources because it offers detailed information concerning how diverse skills are grouped into different categories that incorporate a given task. Evaluating different jobs involves understanding the KSAOCs, as well as other methodologies involved in ascertain job requirements. After evaluating different characteristics of jobs, the HR managers establish job descriptions, which categorize characteristics for each job, based on their roles, qualifications, and working conditions. Job descriptions enable job seekers to be aware of their responsibilities in their prospective organizations. HR managers are capable of evading conflict of interests, as all employees understand their values within the organization.
Brewster, C., Brookes, M., & Gollan, P. J. (2015). The Institutional Antecedents of the Assignment of HRM Responsibilities to Line Managers. Human Resource Management, 54(4), 577-597. doi:10.1002/hrm.21632
Condrey, S. E. (2010). Handbook of Human Resource Management in Government. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Haque Talukder, A. M. (2014). Perceived Importance Of Job Analysis Influencing Motivation And Competencies Among Blue-Collar And White-Collar Employees. IBA Business Review, 9(1), 79-91.
Herman, R. D. (2011). The Jossey-Bass Handbook of Nonprofit Leadership and Management. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Smith, K. J. (2015). Conducting Thorough Job Analyses and Drafting Lawful Job Descriptions. Employment Relations Today (Wiley), 41(4), 95-99. Doi:10.1002/Ert.21479