Sample Paper on Alternative Forms of Tourism and Ethical Dilemmas

Buckley, Ralf. “Sustainable Tourism: Research and Reality.” Annals of Tourism Research, 2012, pp. 528–546.

Most tourism researchers initially turned their attention to social and environmental issues such as healthcare, environment, economy, and agriculture (Buckley 528). The research in science, environment, resource management, global change, human health, and economics is relevant in the achievement of sustainable tourism. For countries to improve social and environmental performance across the entire tourism industry, both innovation and adoption of new policies is required.


In health tourism,Holdaway, Jennifer, et al. explore how the mobility of health workers has contributed to the change of policies in both China and India (269). The author’s established that although many healthcare professionals are driven by their desires to grow their careers and increase their incomes, a good number of these professionals move to overseas countries to gain ideas and skills that they perceive as helpful in the development of the healthcare system in their nations. Holdaway, Jennifer, et al. found that many governments around the world and private foundations have encouraged and supported overseas education because the gained skills would not only be helpful to the people but also to the society.


From the study carried out by the authors of this article, the participants gained a lot from the time spent overseas in many aspects apart from practical skills. Most of the participants developed a responsibility of individual openness and equality in their working environments, which is interactions between doctors and patients. In India and China, most of the medical study programs put more emphasis on biomedical and curative approaches that reproduce interventionist practices of the developed nations. Holdaway, Jennifer, et al. found out that there was little training in the integrated practices in public health that emphasize prevention of diseases and low-cost treatments. The research also indicated on how global knowledge sharing can in many ways assist the professional migrants to gain international experiences that may change the ways in which they can contribute to the policy and institutional developments in their countries.


Sustainable tourism can also be achieved through of cultural tourism, whereNataša Urošević explores on how cultural identity and tourism are interlinked in today’s globalized world (67). The author indicates that with the current global unified values and rapidly changing economic, political, and social practices, tourism provides a chance for cultural and social contact, communication, and cultural exchange. Nataša Urošević explores the increasing urge for confirmation of local cultural identities as well as tourists increased search for identity as an aftermath of the globalization of cultural practices. The author’s research was conducted in Pula, Croatia, with an emphasis on heritage tourism, creative industries, multiculturalism, and the local way of life.


Nataša Urošević discovers that culture is one of the most important reasons for people to visit Pula. The locals, as well as visitors, agree that the city is recognizable mainly because of it’s exceptional cultural, historical, and natural heritage, with the original cultural identity being the Amphitheatre and the old town core with the Roman monuments. The research shows a great potential for the growth of the cultural and creative tourism through attractions covering the most notable elements of identity and heritage. The growth of cultural and creative tourism can be essential to solving issues such as seasonality, increase employment, and attract new and recession-resistant areas of the cultural tourists.


To achieve sustainable tourism through agrotourism, Schilling, Attavanich, and Jin explore the effects of agritourism on farm productivity (69). In this research, the authors have adopted the Census of Agriculture records as their source of information and utilize the propensity score matching to establish the impacts of agritourism on the net income per acre of New Jersey farms. In most small farms, specifically in the Northeast states, agritourism has become a necessary adaptation strategy. Schilling, Attavanich, and Jin established that agritourism significantly increases profits among lifestyle farms. The authors found strong support that the adoption of agritourism can be used as an agricultural economic development strategy. The policy makers in different nations with interests in farm retention can consider plans to stimulate and sustain agritourism, which includes stronger linkages of agritourism into travel and tourism promotions. The authors also suggest that Expanded Cooperative Extension programming is required to support the agritourism operators in sectors such as hospitality, farm safety, risk and liability management, marketing, and enterprise budgeting.


The accessment of ecotourism can be analysed from the works of Zambrano, Durham, and Broadbent where they explore the social and environmental impacts of ecotourism, specifically in the Osa Penisula of Costa Rica (62). In their study, the authors established that ecotourism brings in a promise to promote responsible traveling to natural sites and make a positive contribution to environmental conservation and improve the living conditions of the local communities. The study mainly focuses on the land-use effect of the Lapa Rios (LR) lodge, by confirming that the LR lodge has contributed significantly towards the improvement of local livelihoods and environmental conservation. This protection is evident from the highest rates of reforestation of all the study areas in the Osa Peninsula.


The authors established that the Lapa Rios was very successful in its campaign to educate the staff on environmental conservation. Zambrano, Durham, and Broadbent concluded that Lapa Rios fulfills the definitional promise of ecotourism. This pledge is delivered through the range of social, economic, and environmental benefits that could be expected from a lodge. The LR is a perfect example of successful ecotourism that other lodges can as well copy.


Diaspora tourism is also another approach of achieving sustainable toursim. Huang, Haller, and Ramshaw describe diaspora tourism as the travel of people in the diaspora to their ancestral origins to trace their roots or to gain a connection to their personal heritage (285). According to Huang, Haller, and Ramshaw, diaspora tourism is unique since the tourists feel connected to the people, culture, and way of life before even visiting their destinations. The author’s research explores the connection between second generation immigrants attachments to their familial homelands and their journey back home.


Huang, Haller, and Ramshaw established that there is a relationship between the home trips by immigrants and their sense of belonging to their country of origin. For the immigrants, the trips they take in different stages of their lives have different effects. The diaspora tourism provides the immigrants with the chance to experience and learn about their traditional culture. The study established that the tourists who are visiting their ancestral homes care more about the destination than other international visitors. Most of these tourists maintain a high economic, political, and religious ties to their ancestral homeland, so in their preceding trips, they will be more interested in sustaining and improving the well-being of the local people, culture, and environment.The tourism sector strongly focuses on economic aspects, with attention to the social and environmental issues.





Works Cited

A.M.A., Zambrano, Durham W.H. and Broadbent E.N. “Social and environmental effects of ecotourism in the Osa Peninsula of Costa Rica: The Lapa Rios case.” Journal of Ecotourism (2010): 62-83. Print.

Buckley, Ralf. “Sustainable Tourism: Research and Reality.” Annals of Tourism Research (2012): 528–546.

Holdaway, Jennifer, et al. “Mobility and health sector development in China and India.” Social Science & Medicine (2015): 268-276. Document.

Huang, Wei-Jue, William J Haller and Gregory P Ramshaw. “Diaspora Tourism and Homeland Attachment: An Exploratory Analysis.” Tourism Analysis (2013): 285-296. Print.

Schilling, B J, W Attavanich and Y Jin. “Does Agritourism Enhance Farm Profitability?” Journal Of Agricultural And Resource Economics (2014): 69-87. Print.

Urošević, Nataša. “cultural identity and cultural tourism:Between the local and the global (a case study of pula, croatia).” Singidunum Journal of Applied Sciences (2012): 67-76. Print.